Transcript: Primetime Democratic Debate

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Transcript: Read the Full Text of the Primetime Democratic Debate | TIME

The Democratic presidential candidates met in Las Vegas for a primetime debate on CNN.

At the debate were former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders, former Maryland Gov. Martin O’Malley, former Virginia Sen. Jim Webb and former Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Chafee.

The moderators were CNN anchors Anderson Cooper and Don Lemon, political correspondent Dana Bash and CNN en Espanol anchor Juan Carlos Lopez.

Here is a full transcript of what they said, courtesy of CNN.

ANDERSON COOPER, CNN ANCHOR: And good evening everyone. We are live at the Wynn Resort in Las Vegas for the CNN/Facebook Democratic Presidential Debate. Welcome.

(APPLAUSE)

The five major candidates are about to face off for the first time in a primary race that is a lot more competitive than many people had expected.

Welcome. I’m Anderson Cooper. Thanks for joining us. We’re just seconds away from introducing the candidates to viewers in the United States and watching right now around the world.

This debate is airing on CNN, CNN en Espanol, and CNN International. It’s also being broadcast on the Westwood One Radio Network. I’ll be the moderator tonight. I’ll also be joined in the questioning by my CNN colleagues, our chief political correspondent, Dana Bash; CNN en Espanol anchor Juan Carlos Lopez, and CNN anchor Don Lemon who will share questions from Democrats nationwide.

We’ve teamed up with Facebook to send a campaign camper around the country for the past three weeks. Thousands of people stepped inside to record their questions for the candidates on video. Millions more have weighed in on Facebook. Now it’s time to meet the candidates.

Joining us on stage, please welcome former Rhode Island Governor Lincoln Chafee.

(APPLAUSE)

Former Maryland Governor Martin O’Malley.

(APPLAUSE)

Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

(APPLAUSE)

Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont.

(APPLAUSE)

And former Senator Jim Webb of Virginia.

(APPLAUSE)

Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome the Democratic candidates for president of the United States.

(APPLAUSE)

Now, everybody, please rise for our national anthem, performed by nine-time Grammy Award-winning singer-songwriter, Sheryl Crow.

(SINGING)

O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,

Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,

O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?

And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,

Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;

O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave

O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

 

On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,

Where the foe’s haughty host in dread silence reposes,

What is that which the breeze, o’er the towering steep,

As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?

Now it catches the gleam of the morning’s first beam,

In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:

‘Tis the star-spangled banner, O! long may it wave

O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

 

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore

That the havoc of war and the battle’s confusion,

A home and a country, should leave us no more?

Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps’ pollution.

No refuge could save the hireling and slave

From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:

And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave,

O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

 

O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand

Between their loved homes and the war’s desolation.

Blest with vict’ry and peace, may the Heav’n rescued land

Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,

And this be our motto: “In God is our trust.”

And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave

O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: I want to thank Sheryl Crow. The candidates are here. The crowd is certainly ready. The first Democratic debate will begin right after this.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

COOPER: There is certainly a lot of excitement in this room tonight, and no doubt around the country. We are back in the Wynn Resort in Las Vegas in the presidential battleground state of Nevada for the first Democratic debate of the 2016 campaign.

I’m Anderson Cooper. Thanks for joining us. We’ve already welcomed the candidates on stage. They are in place at their podiums. Before we dive into the issues, I want to quickly explain some of the ground-rules tonight.

As the moderator, I’ll ask questions, followups and guide the discussion. I’ll be joined in the questioning by CNN’s Juan Carlos Lopez and Dana Bash, a well as Don Lemon who will share questions from Democrats around the country. Each candidate will get one minute to answer questions, and 30 seconds for followups and rebuttals. I’ll give candidates time to respond if they have been singled out for criticism.

Our viewers should know that we have lights that are visible to the candidates to warn them when their time is up.

I want the candidates to be able to introduce themselves to our audience. Each candidate will have two minutes to introduce themselves.

Let’s begin with Governor Chafee.

Governor?

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FORMER GOV. LINCOLN CHAFEE, D-R.I.: Thank you, Anderson.

Thank you, CNN, and thank you Facebook for organizing this debate.

Not only will Americans be electing a new president next year, we also will be electing a world leader. Voters should assess the candidate’s experience, character and vision for the future as they make this important decision.

I’m the only one running for president that has been a mayor, a United States senator, and a governor. As mayor, I brought labor peace to my city and kept taxes down. I was reelected three times. As a senator, I earned a reputation for courageous votes against the Bush-Cheney tax cuts the favored the wealthy, against the tragedy of the Iraq war, for environmental stewardship, for protection of our civil liberties. I served on the Foreign Relations Committee and I chaired the Middle East Subcommittee for four years.

As governor, I came in at the depths of the recession and we turned my state around. Rhode Island had the biggest drop of the unemployment rate over my four budgets of all but one state. It happens to be Nevada, where we’re having this debate. I’m very proud that over my almost 30 years of public service, I have had no scandals. I’ve always been honest. I have the courage to take the long-term view, and I’ve shown good judgment. I have high ethical standards.

As we look to the future, I want to address the income inequality, close the gap between the haves and the have-nots. I want to address climate change, a real threat to our planet. And I believe in prosperity through peace. I want to end these wars.

I look forward to the discussion ahead.

Thank you (APPLAUSE)

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COOPER: Thank you very much, Governor.

(APPLAUSE)

Senator Webb, you have two minutes.

FORMER SEN. JIM WEBB, D-VA.: Thank you.

You know, people are disgusted with the way that money has corrupted our political process, intimidating incumbents and empowering Wall Street every day, the turnstile government that we see, and also the power of the financial sector in both parties.

WEBB: They’re looking for a leader who understands how the system works, who has not been co-opted by it, and also has a proven record of accomplishing different things. I have a record of working across the political aisle. I’ve also spent more than half of my professional life away from politics in the independent world of being an author, a journalist, and a sole proprietor.

In government service, I’ve fought and bled for our country in Vietnam as a Marine. I spent years as Assistant Secretary of Defense, Secretary of the Navy — in the Reagan administration.

In the senate, I spoke about economic fairness and social justice from day one. I also wrote and passed the best piece of veterans education legislation in history, the Post 9/11 G.I. Bill. I brought criminal justice reform out of the political shadows and into the national discussion. I led what later became called the Strategic Pivot to Asia two years before President Obama was elected.

I know where my loyalties are.

My mother grew up in the poverty of east Arkansas chopping cotton, picking strawberries. Three of her seven siblings died in childhood. My wife, Hong, came to this country as a refugee from war torn Vietnam — learned English, a language that was not spoken at home, and earned her way into Cornell Law School. I have five daughters. Amy works with disabled veterans, Sarah is an emergency room nurse, Julia is a massage therapist, Emily and Georgia are still in school. My son Jim fought as an infantry Marine on the bloody streets of Ramadi.

You may be sure that in a Webb administration, the highest priority will be the working people who every day go out and make this country stronger at home, and who give us the right reputation and security overseas under a common sense foreign policy.

(CHEERING) (APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, you have two minutes.

FORMER GOV. MARTIN O’MALLEY, D-MD.: My name is Martin O’Malley, former Mayor of Baltimore, former governor of Maryland, a life long democrat, and most importantly, a husband, and a father.

My wife Katie and I have four great kids, Grace, and Tara, and William and Jack. And, like you, there is nothing we wouldn’t do to give them healthier and better lives. There are some things that I have learned to do better in life than others. And, after 15 years of executive experience, I have learned how to be an effective leader.

Whether it was raising the minimum wage, making our public schools the best in America, passing marriage equality, the DREAM Act, and comprehensive gun safety legislation, I have learned how to get things done because I am very clear about my principals.

Thanks to President Obama, our country has come a long way since the Wall Street crash of 2008. Our country’s doing better, we are creating jobs again. But we elected a president, not a magician, and there is urgent work that needs to be done right now. For there is a — deep injustice, an economic injustice that threatens to tear our country apart, and it will not solve itself. Injustice does not solve itself.

What I’m talking about is this, our middle class is shrinking. Our poor families are becoming poorer, and 70 percent of us are earning the same, or less than we were 12 years ago. We need new leadership, and we need action. The sort of action that will actually make wages go up again for all American families.

Our economy isn’t money, it’s people. It’s all of our people, and so we must invest in our country, and the potential of our kids to make college a debt free option for all of our families, instead of settling our kids with a lifetime of crushing debt.

And, we must square our shoulders to the great challenge of climate change and make this threat our opportunity. The future is what we make of it. We are all in this together. And, the question in this election is whether you and I still have the ability to give our kids a better future. I believe we do, that is why I am running for president, and I need your help.

Thank you.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, thank you very much. Senator Sanders.

SEN. BERNARD SANDERS, I-VT.: Anderson, thank you very much. I think most Americans understand that our country today faces a series of unprecedented crises. The middle class of this country for the last 40 years has been disappearing. Millions of Americans are working longer hours for lower wages, and yet almost all of the new income and wealth being created is going to the top one percent.

As a result of this disastrous Citizens United Supreme Court decision, our campaign finance system is corrupt and is undermining American democracy. Millionaires and billionaires are pouring unbelievable sums of money into the political process in order to fund super PACs and to elect candidates who represent their interests, not the interests of working people.

Today, the scientific community is virtually unanimous: climate change is real, it is caused by human activity, and we have a moral responsibility to transform our energy system away from fossil fuel to energy efficiency and sustainable energy and leave this planet a habitable planet for our children and our grandchildren.

Today in America, we have more people in jail than any other country on Earth. African-American youth unemployment is 51 percent. Hispanic youth unemployment is 36 percent. It seems to me that instead of building more jails and providing more incarceration, maybe — just maybe — we should be putting money into education and jobs for our kids.

(APPLAUSE)

What this campaign is about is whether we can mobilize our people to take back our government from a handful of billionaires and create the vibrant democracy we know we can and should have. Thank you.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton?

FORMER SECRETARY OF STATE HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON: Well, thank you, and thanks to everyone for hosting this first of the Democratic debates.

I’m Hillary Clinton. I have been proud and privileged to serve as first lady, as a senator from New York, and as secretary of state. I’m the granddaughter of a factory worker and the grandmother of a wonderful one-year-old child. And every day, I think about what we need to do to make sure that opportunity is available not just for her, but for all of our children. I have spent a very long time — my entire adult life — looking for ways to even the odds to help people have a chance to get ahead, and, in particular, to find the ways for each child to live up to his or her God-given potential.

I’ve traveled across our country over the last months listening and learning, and I’ve put forward specific plans about how we’re going to create more good-paying jobs: by investing in infrastructure and clean energy, by making it possible once again to invest in science and research, and taking the opportunity posed by climate change to grow our economy.

At the center of my campaign is how we’re going to raise wages. Yes, of course, raise the minimum wage, but we have to do so much more, including finding ways so that companies share profits with the workers who helped to make them.

And then we have to figure out how we’re going to make the tax system a fairer one. Right now, the wealthy pay too little and the middle class pays too much. So I have specific recommendations about how we’re going to close those loopholes, make it clear that the wealthy will have to pay their fair share, and have a series of tax cuts for middle-class families.

And I want to do more to help us balance family and work. I believe in equal pay for equal work for women, but I also believe it’s about time we had paid family leave for American families and join the rest of the world.

(APPLAUSE)

During the course of the evening tonight, I’ll have a chance to lay out all of my plans and the work that I’ve done behind them. But for me, this is about bringing our country together again. And I will do everything I can to heal the divides — the divides economically, because there’s too much inequality; the racial divides; the continuing discrimination against the LGBT community — so that we work together and, yes, finally, fathers will be able to say to their daughters, you, too, can grow up to be president.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Thank you, all. It is time to start the debate.

Are you all ready?

(APPLAUSE)

All right. Let’s begin. We’re going to be discussing a lot of the issues, many of the issues, important issues that you have brought up. But I want to begin with concerns that voters have about each of the candidates here on this stage that they have about each of you.

Secretary Clinton, I want to start with you. Plenty of politicians evolve on issues, but even some Democrats believe you change your positions based on political expediency.

You were against same-sex marriage. Now you’re for it. You defended President Obama’s immigration policies. Now you say they’re too harsh. You supported his trade deal dozen of times. You even called it the “gold standard”. Now, suddenly, last week, you’re against it.

Will you say anything to get elected?

CLINTON: Well, actually, I have been very consistent. Over the course of my entire life, I have always fought for the same values and principles, but, like most human beings — including those of us who run for office — I do absorb new information. I do look at what’s happening in the world.

You know, taker the trade deal. I did say, when I was secretary of state, three years ago, that I hoped it would be the gold standard. It was just finally negotiated last week, and in looking at it, it didn’t meet my standards. My standards for more new, good jobs for Americans, for raising wages for Americans.

And I want to make sure that I can look into the eyes of any middle-class American and say, “this will help raise your wages.” And I concluded I could not.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, though, with all due respect, the question is really about political expediency. Just in July, New Hampshire, you told the crowd you’d, quote, “take a back seat to no one when it comes to progressive values.”

Last month in Ohio, you said you plead guilty to, quote, “being kind of moderate and center.” Do you change your political identity based on who you’re talking to? CLINTON: No. I think that, like most people that I know, I have a range of views, but they are rooted in my values and my experience. And I don’t take a back seat to anyone when it comes to progressive experience and progressive commitment.

You know, when I left law school, my first job was with the Children’s Defense Fund, and for all the years since, I have been focused on how we’re going to un-stack the deck, and how we’re going to make it possible for more people to have the experience I had.

You know, to be able to come from a grandfather who was a factory worker, a father who was a small business person, and now asking the people of America to elect me president.

COOPER: Just for the record, are you a progressive, or are you a moderate?

CLINTON: I’m a progressive. But I’m a progressive who likes to get things done. And I know…

(APPLAUSE)

…how to find common ground, and I know how to stand my ground, and I have proved that in every position that I’ve had, even dealing with Republicans who never had a good word to say about me, honestly. But we found ways to work together on everything from…

COOPER: Secretary…

CLINTON: …reforming foster care and adoption to the Children’s Health Insurance Program, which insures…

COOPER: …thank you…

CLINTON: …8 million kids. So I have a long history of getting things done, rooted in the same values…

COOPER: …Senator…

CLINTON: …I’ve always had.

COOPER: Senator Sanders. A Gallup poll says half the country would not put a socialist in the White House. You call yourself a democratic socialist. How can any kind of socialist win a general election in the United States?

SANDERS: Well, we’re going to win because first, we’re going to explain what democratic socialism is.

And what democratic socialism is about is saying that it is immoral and wrong that the top one-tenth of 1 percent in this country own almost 90 percent — almost — own almost as much wealth as the bottom 90 percent. That it is wrong, today, in a rigged economy, that 57 percent of all new income is going to the top 1 percent.

That when you look around the world, you see every other major country providing health care to all people as a right, except the United States. You see every other major country saying to moms that, when you have a baby, we’re not going to separate you from your newborn baby, because we are going to have — we are going to have medical and family paid leave, like every other country on Earth.

Those are some of the principles that I believe in, and I think we should look to countries like Denmark, like Sweden and Norway, and learn from what they have accomplished for their working people.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Denmark is a country that has a population — Denmark is a country that has a population of 5.6 million people. The question is really about electability here, and that’s what I’m trying to get at.

You — the — the Republican attack ad against you in a general election — it writes itself. You supported the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. You honeymooned in the Soviet Union. And just this weekend, you said you’re not a capitalist.

Doesn’t — doesn’t that ad write itself?

SANDERS: Well, first of all, let’s look at the facts. The facts that are very simple. Republicans win when there is a low voter turnout, and that is what happened last November.

Sixty-three percent of the American people didn’t vote, Anderson. Eighty percent of young people didn’t vote. We are bringing out huge turnouts, and creating excitement all over this country.

Democrats at the White House on down will win, when there is excitement and a large voter turnout, and that is what this campaign is doing.

COOPER: You don’t consider yourself a capitalist, though?

SANDERS: Do I consider myself part of the casino capitalist process by which so few have so much and so many have so little by which Wall Street’s greed and recklessness wrecked this economy? No, I don’t.

I believe in a society where all people do well. Not just a handful of billionaires.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Just let me just be clear. Is there anybody else on the stage who is not a capitalist?

CLINTON: Well, let me just follow-up on that, Anderson, because when I think about capitalism, I think about all the small businesses that were started because we have the opportunity and the freedom in our country for people to do that and to make a good living for themselves and their families.

And I don’t think we should confuse what we have to do every so often in America, which is save capitalism from itself. And I think what Senator Sanders is saying certainly makes sense in the terms of the inequality that we have.

But we are not Denmark. I love Denmark. We are the United States of America. And it’s our job to rein in the excesses of capitalism so that it doesn’t run amok and doesn’t cause the kind of inequities we’re seeing in our economic system.

But we would be making a grave mistake to turn our backs on what built the greatest middle class in the history…

COOPER: Senator Sanders?

CLINTON: … of the world.

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: I think everybody is in agreement that we are a great entrepreneurial nation. We have got to encourage that. Of course, we have to support small and medium-sized businesses.

But you can have all of the growth that you want and it doesn’t mean anything if all of the new income and wealth is going to the top 1 percent. So what we need to do is support small and medium-sized businesses, the backbone of our economy, but we have to make sure that every family in this country gets a fair shake…

COOPER: We’re going to get…

SANDERS: … not just for billionaires.

COOPER: We’re going to have a lot more on these issues. But I do want to just quickly get everybody in on the question of electability.

Governor Chafee, you’ve been everything but a socialist. When you were senator from Rhode Island, you were a Republican. When you were elected governor, you were an independent. You’ve only been a Democrat for little more than two years. Why should Democratic voters trust you won’t change again?

CHAFEE: Anderson, you’re looking at a block of granite when it comes to the issues. Whether it’s…

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: It seems like pretty soft granite. I mean, you’ve been a Republican, you’ve been an independent.

CHAFEE: Did you hear what I said? On the issues. I have not changed on the issues. I was a liberal Republican, then I was an independent, and now I’m a proud Democrat. But I have not changed on the issues.

And I open my record to scrutiny. Whether it’s on the environment, a woman’s right to choose, gay marriage, fiscal responsibility, aversion to foreign entanglements, using the tools of government to help the less fortunate.

Time and time again, I have never changed. You’re looking at a block of granite when it comes to the issues. So I have not changed.

COOPER: Then why change labels?

CHAFEE: The party left me. There’s no doubt about that. There was no room for a liberal moderate Republican in that party. I even had a primary for my reelection in 2006. I won it. But the money poured in to defeat me in Rhode Island as a Republican. That’s what we were up against.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, the concern of voters about you is that you tout our record as Baltimore’s mayor. As we all know, we all saw it. That city exploded in riots and violence in April.

The current top prosecutor in Baltimore, also a Democrat, blames your zero tolerance policies for sowing the seeds of unrest. Why should Americans trust you with the country when they see what’s going on in the city that you ran for more than seven years?

O’MALLEY: Yes, actually, I believe what she said was that there’s a lot of policies that have led to this unrest.

But, Anderson, when I ran for mayor of Baltimore in 1999…

COOPER: She actually — just for the record, when she was asked which policies, to name two, she said zero tolerance. I mean, there’s a number of old policies that we’re seeing the results of. That distress of communities, where communities don’t want to step forward and say who killed a 3-year-old, it’s a direct result of these failed policies.

O’MALLEY: Well, let’s talk about this a little bit. One of the things that was not reported during that heartbreaking night of unrest in Baltimore was that arrests had actually fallen to a 38-year low in the year prior to the Freddie Gray’s tragic death.

Anderson, when I ran for mayor of Baltimore back in 1999, it was not because our city was doing well. It was because we allowed ourselves to become the most violent, addicted, and abandoned city in America.

And I ran and promised people that together we could turn that around. And we put our city on a path to reduce violent crime, or part one (ph) crime by more than any other major city in America over the next 10 years.

I did not make our city immune to setbacks. But I attended a lot of funerals, including one for a family of seven who were firebombed in their sleep for picking up the phone in a poor African-American neighborhood and calling the police because of drug dealers on their corner.

We’ve saved over a thousand lives in Baltimore in the last 15 years of people working together. And the vast majority of them were young and poor and black. It wasn’t easy on any day. But we saved lives and we gave our city a better future, improving police and community relations every single day that I was in office.

COOPER: In one year alone, though, 100,000 arrests were made in your city, a city of 640,000 people. The ACLU, the NAACP sued you, sued the city, and the city actually settled, saying a lot of those arrests were without probable cause.

O’MALLEY: Well, I think the key word in your followup there was the word “settle.” That’s true. It was settled. Arrests peaked in 2003, Anderson, but they declined every year after that as we restored peace in our poorer neighborhoods so that people could actually walk and not have to worry about their kids or their loved ones of being victims of violent crime.

Look, none of this is easy. None of us has all the answers. But together as a city, we saved a lot of lives. It was about leadership. It was about principle. And it was about bringing people together.

COOPER: Thank you, Governor.

O’MALLEY: Thank you. COOPER: Senator Webb, in 2006, you called affirmative action “state-sponsored racism.” In 2010, you wrote an op/ed saying it discriminates against whites. Given that nearly half the Democratic Party is non-white, aren’t you out of step with where the Democratic Party is now?

WEBB: No, actually I believe that I am where the Democratic Party traditionally has been. The Democratic Party, and the reason I’ve decided to run as a Democrat, has been the party that gives people who otherwise have no voice in the corridors of power a voice. And that is not determined by race.

And as a clarification, I have always supported affirmative action for African Americans. That’s the way the program was originally designed because of their unique history in this country, with slavery and the Jim Crow laws that followed. What I have discussed a number of times is the idea that when we create diversity programs that include everyone, quote, “of color,” other than whites, struggling whites like the families in the Appalachian mountains, we’re not being true to the Democratic Party principle of elevating the level of consciousness among our people about the hardships that a lot of people who happen to be have — by culture, by the way.

COOPER: Senator Webb, thank you very much.

Let’s move on to some of the most pressing issues facing our country right now, some of the biggest issues right now in the headlines today. We’re going to start with guns. The shooting in Oregon earlier this month, once again it brought the issue of guns into the national conversation. Over the last week, guns have been the most discussed political topic on Facebook by two to one.

Senator Sanders, you voted against the Brady bill that mandated background checks and a waiting period. You also supported allowing riders to bring guns in checked bags on Amtrak trains. For a decade, you said that holding gun manufacturers legally responsible for mass shootings is a bad idea. Now, you say you’re reconsidering that. Which is it: shield the gun companies from lawsuits or not?

SANDERS: Let’s begin, Anderson, by understanding that Bernie Sanders has a D-minus voting rating (ph) from the NRA. Let’s also understand that back in 1988 when I first ran for the United States Congress, way back then, I told the gun owners of the state of Vermont and I told the people of the state of Vermont, a state which has virtually no gun control, that I supported a ban on assault weapons. And over the years, I have strongly supported instant background checks, doing away with this terrible gun show loophole. And I think we’ve got to move aggressively at the federal level in dealing with the straw man purchasers.

Also I believe, and I’ve fought for, to understand that there are thousands of people in this country today who are suicidal, who are homicidal, but can’t get the healthcare that they need, the mental healthcare, because they don’t have insurance or they’re too poor. I believe that everybody in this country who has a mental crisis has got to get mental health counseling immediately. COOPER: Do you want to shield gun companies from lawsuits?

SANDERS: Of course not. This was a large and complicated bill. There were provisions in it that I think made sense. For example, do I think that a gun shop in the state of Vermont that sells legally a gun to somebody, and that somebody goes out and does something crazy, that that gun shop owner should be held responsible? I don’t.

On the other hand, where you have manufacturers and where you have gun shops knowingly giving guns to criminals or aiding and abetting that, of course we should take action.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, is Bernie Sanders tough enough on guns?

CLINTON: No, not at all. I think that we have to look at the fact that we lose 90 people a day from gun violence. This has gone on too long and it’s time the entire country stood up against the NRA. The majority of our country…

(APPLAUSE)

… supports background checks, and even the majority of gun owners do.

Senator Sanders did vote five times against the Brady bill. Since it was passed, more than 2 million prohibited purchases have been prevented. He also did vote, as he said, for this immunity provision. I voted against it. I was in the Senate at the same time. It wasn’t that complicated to me. It was pretty straightforward to me that he was going to give immunity to the only industry in America. Everybody else has to be accountable, but not the gun manufacturers. And we need to stand up and say: Enough of that. We’re not going to let it continue.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: We’re going to bring you all in on this. But, Senator Sanders, you have to give a response.

SANDERS: As a senator from a rural state, what I can tell Secretary Clinton, that all the shouting in the world is not going to do what I would hope all of us want, and that is keep guns out of the hands of people who should not have those guns and end this horrible violence that we are seeing.

I believe that there is a consensus in this country. A consensus has said we need to strengthen and expand instant background checks, do away with this gun show loophole, that we have to address the issue of mental health, that we have to deal with the strawman purchasing issue, and that when we develop that consensus, we can finally, finally do something to address this issue.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, you passed gun legislation as governor of Maryland, but you had a Democratic-controlled legislature. President Obama couldn’t convince Congress to pass gun legislation after the massacres in Aurora, in Newtown, and Charleston. How can you?

O’MALLEY: And, Anderson, I also had to overcome a lot of opposition in the leadership of my own party to get this done. Look, it’s fine to talk about all of these things — and I’m glad we’re talking about these things — but I’ve actually done them.

We passed comprehensive gun safety legislation, not by looking at the pollings or looking at what the polls said. We actually did it. And, Anderson, here tonight in our audience are two people that make this issue very, very real. Sandy and Lonnie Phillips are here from Colorado. And their daughter, Jessie, was one of those who lost their lives in that awful mass shooting in Aurora.

Now, to try to transform their grief, they went to court, where sometimes progress does happen when you file in court, but in this case, you want to talk about a — a rigged game, Senator? The game was rigged. A man had sold 4,000 rounds of military ammunition to this — this person that killed their daughter, riddled her body with five bullets, and he didn’t even ask where it was going.

And not only did their case get thrown out of court, they were slapped with $200,000 in court fees because of the way that the NRA gets its way in our Congress and we take a backseat. It’s time to stand up and pass comprehensive gun safety legislation as a nation.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Senator Sanders, I want you to be able to respond, 30 seconds.

SANDERS: I think the governor gave a very good example about the weaknesses in that law and I think we have to take another look at it. But here is the point, Governor. We can raise our voices, but I come from a rural state, and the views on gun control in rural states are different than in urban states, whether we like it or not.

Our job is to bring people together around strong, commonsense gun legislation. I think there is a vast majority in this country who want to do the right thing, and I intend to lead the country in bringing our people together.

O’MALLEY: Senator — Senator, excuse me.

(CROSSTALK)

O’MALLEY: Senator, it is not about rural — Senator, it was not about rural and urban.

SANDERS: It’s exactly about rural.

O’MALLEY: Have you ever been to the Eastern Shore? Have you ever been to Western Maryland? We were able to pass this and still respect the hunting traditions of people who live in our rural areas.

SANDERS: Governor…

O’MALLEY: And we did it by leading with principle, not by pandering to the NRA and backing down to the NRA.

SANDERS: Well, as somebody who has a D-minus voting record…

(CROSSTALK)

O’MALLEY: And I have an F from the NRA, Senator.

SANDERS: I don’t think I am pandering. But you have not been in the United States Congress.

O’MALLEY: Well, maybe that’s a healthy thing.

(LAUGHTER)

SANDERS: And when you want to, check it out. And if you think — if you think that we can simply go forward and pass something tomorrow without bringing people together, you are sorely mistaken.

COOPER: Let me bring in somebody who has a different viewpoint. Senator Webb, your rating from the NRA, you once had an A rating from the NRA. You’ve said gun violence goes down when more people are allowed to carry guns. Would encouraging more people to be armed be part of your response to a mass shooting?

WEBB: Look, there are two fundamental issues that are involved in this discussion. We need to pay respect to both of them. The first is the issue of who should be kept from having guns and using firearms. And we have done not a good job on that.

A lot of them are criminals. And a lot of the people are getting killed are members of gangs inside our urban areas. And a lot of them are mentally incapacitated. And the shooting in Virginia Tech in ’07, this individual had received medical care for mental illness from three different professionals who were not allowed to share the information.

So we do need background checks. We need to keep the people who should not have guns away from them. But we have to respect the tradition in this country of people who want to defend themselves and their family from violence.

COOPER: Senator…

WEBB: May I? People are going back and forth here for 10 minutes here. There are people at high levels in this government who have bodyguards 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The average American does not have that, and deserves the right to be able to protect their family.

COOPER: Senator — Governor Chafee, you have an F rating from the NRA, what do you think about what Senator Webb just said?

CHAFEE: Yes, I have a good record of voting for gun commonsense safety legislation, but the reality is, despite these tragedies that happen time and time again, when legislators step up to pass commonsense gun safety legislation, the gun lobby moves in and tells the people they’re coming to take away your guns.

And, they’re successful at it, in Colorado and others states, the legislators that vote for commonsense gun safety measures then get defeated. I even saw in Rhode Island. So, I would bring the gun lobby in and say we’ve got to change this. Where can we find common ground? Wayne Lapierre from the NRA, whoever it is, the leaders. Come one, we’ve go to change this. We’re not coming to take away your guns, we believe in the Second Amendment, but let’s find common ground here.

COOPER: I want to…

O’MALLEY: …Anderson, when the NRA wrote to everyone in our state — when the NRA wrote to members in our state and told people with hunting traditions lies about what our comprehensive gun safety legislation is, I wrote right back to them and laid out what it actually did. And that’s why, not only did we pass it, but the NRA didn’t…

SANDERS: …Excuse me…

O’MALLEY: …dare to petition a referendum…

SANDERS: …I want to make…

O’MALLEY: …Because we built a public consensus… COOPER: …I want to move on to another issue, which is in the headlines right now, another crisis making headlines.

Secretary Clinton, Russia, they’re challenging the U.S. in Syria. According to U.S. intelligence, they’ve lied about who they’re bombing. You spearheaded the reset with Russia. Did you underestimate the Russians, and as president, what would your response to Vladimir Putin be right now in Syria?

CLINTON: Well, first of all, we got a lot of business done with the Russians when Medvedev was the president, and not Putin. We got a nuclear arms deal, we got the Iranian sanctions, we got an ability to bring important material and equipment to our soldiers in Afghanistan.

There’s no doubt that when Putin came back in and said he was going to be President, that did change the relationship. We have to stand up to his bullying, and specifically in Syria, it is important — and I applaud the administration because they are engaged in talks right now with the Russians to make it clear that they’ve got to be part of the solution to try to end that bloody conflict.

And, to — provide safe zones so that people are not going to have to be flooding out of Syria at the rate they are. And, I think it’s important too that the United States make it very clear to Putin that it’s not acceptable for him to be in Syria creating more chaos, bombing people on behalf of Assad, and we can’t do that if we don’t take more of a leadership position, which is what I’m advocating.

COOPER: Senator Sanders, what would you do differently.

SANDERS: Well, let’s understand that when we talk about Syria, you’re talking about a quagmire in a quagmire. You’re talking about groups of people trying to overthrow Assad, other groups of people fighting ISIS. You’re talking about people who are fighting ISIS using their guns to overthrow Assad, and vice versa.

I’m the former chairman of the Senate Veterans Committee, and in that capacity I learned a very powerful lesson about the cost of war, and I will do everything that I can to make sure that the United States does not get involved in another quagmire like we did in Iraq, the worst foreign policy blunder in the history of this country. We should be putting together a coalition of Arab countries who should be leading the effort. We should be supportive, but I do not support American ground troops in Syria.

COOPER: On this issue of foreign policy, I want to go to…

CLINTON: …Well, nobody does. Nobody does, Senator Sanders.

COOPER: I want to go to Dana Bash. Dana?

DANA BASH, CNN CHIEF POLITICAL CORRESPONDENT: Governor Chafee, you were the only Republican in the Senate to vote against the Iraq war. You say Secretary Clinton should be disqualified from the presidency because she voted in favor of using force in Iraq. She has since said that her vote was a mistake. Why isn’t that good enough? CHAFEE: Well, we just heard Senator Sanders say that it’s the worst decision in American history. That’s very significant, the worst decision in American history, I just heard from Senator Sanders.

So, as we look ahead, if you’re going to make those poor judgment calls, a critical time in our history, we just finished with the Vietnam era, getting back into another quagmire — if you’re looking ahead, and you’re looking at someone who made that poor decision in 2002 to go into Iraq when there was no real evidence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq — I know because I did my homework, and, so, that’s an indication of how someone will perform in the future. And that’s what’s important.

(APPLAUSE)

BASH: Secretary Clinton, he’s questioning your judgment.

CLINTON: Well, I recall very well being on a debate stage, I think, about 25 times with then Senator Obama, debating this very issue. After the election, he asked me to become Secretary of State.

He valued my judgment, and I spent a lot of time with him…

(APPLAUSE)

…in the Situation Room, going over some very difficult issues.

You know, I — I agree completely. We don’t want American troops on the ground in Syria. I never said that. What I said was we had to put together a coalition — in fact, something that I worked on before I left the State Department — to do, and yes, that it should include Arabs, people in the region.

Because what I worry about is what will happen with ISIS gaining more territory, having more reach, and, frankly, posing a threat to our friends and neighbors in the region and far beyond.

So I think while you’re talking about the tough decision that President Obama had to make about Osama bin Laden, where I was one of his few advisers, or putting together that coalition to impose sanctions on Iran — I think I have a lot of evidence…

(CROSSTALK)

BASH: Senator Sanders — Senator Sanders, I want to bring you in here. My question for you is, as a congressman, you voted against the Iraq War. You voted against the Gulf War. You’re just talking about Syria, but under what circumstances would a President Sanders actually use force?

SANDERS: Let me just respond to something the secretary said. First of all, she is talking about, as I understand it, a no-fly zone in Syria, which I think is a very dangerous situation. Could lead to real problems.

Second of all, I heard the same evidence from President Bush and Dick Cheney and Don Rumsfeld about why we should overthrow Saddam Hussein and get involved in the — I would urge people to go to berniesanders.com, hear what I said in 2002. And I say, without any joy in my heart, that much of what I thought would happen about the destabilization, in fact, did happen.

So I think… BASH: All right.

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: I think the president is trying very hard to thread a tough needle here, and that is to support those people who are against Assad, against ISIS, without getting us on the ground there, and that’s the direction I believe we should have (inaudible).

COOPER: But, Senator Sanders, you didn’t answer the question. Under what — under what circumstances would you actually use force?

SANDERS: Well, obviously, I voted, when President Clinton said, “let’s stop ethnic cleansing in Kosovo,” I voted for that. I voted to make sure that Osama bin Laden was held accountable in Afghanistan.

When our country is threatened, or when our allies are threatened, I believe that we need coalitions to come together to address the major crises of this country. I do not support the United States getting involved in unilateral action.

(UNKNOWN): You’re at work with our allies.

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: I’m gonna bring you all in on this. Governor — Governor O’Malley, Secretary Clinton…

SANDERS: I don’t believe that any…

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton voted to authorize military force in Iraq, supported more troops in Afghanistan. As Secretary of State, she wanted to arm Syrian rebels and push for the bombing of Libya. Is she too quick to use military force?

O’MALLEY: Anderson, no president — no commander in chief — should take the military option off the table, even if most of us would agree that it should be the last option.

What disturbed people so much about — and I would agree with Senator Sanders on this — leading us into Iraq under false pretenses and telling us, as a people, that there were weapons of mass destruction there was — was one of the worst blunders in modern American history.

But the reason why people remain angry about it is because people feel like a lot of our legislators got railroaded in a war fever and by polls. And I remember being at a dinner shortly before that invasion. People were talking at — and saying, “it’ll take us just a couple years to rebuild democracy,” and I thought, “has this world gone mad?”

Whenever we go — and contrary to John Quincy Adams’ advice — “searching the world for monsters to destroy,” and when we use political might to take a — at the expense of democratic principle, we hurt ourselves, and we hurt our (inaudible).

COOPER: Does she — does she want to use military force too rapidly?

O’MALLEY: I believe that, as president, I would not be so quick to pull for a military tool. I believe that a no-fly zone in Syria, at this time, actually, Secretary, would be a mistake.

You have to enforce no-fly zones, and I believe, especially with the Russian air force in the air, it could lead to an escalation because of an accident that we would deeply regret.

I support President Obama. I think we have to play a long game, and I think, ultimately — you want to talk about blunders? I think Assad’s invasion of Syria will be seen as a blunder.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, just for the record, on the campaign trail, you’ve been saying that Secretary Clinton is always quick for the — for the military intervention. Senator — Secretary Clinton, you can respond.

CLINTON: Well, first of all, I…

WEBB: Anderson, can I come into this discussion at some point?

COOPER: Well — yes, you’ll be coming in next, but she was directly quoted, Senator.

WEBB: Thank you. I’ve been standing over here for about ten minutes, trying.

COOPER: OK.

WEBB: It’s just — it’s gone back and forth over there.

COOPER: Secretary?

CLINTON: Well, I am in the middle, here, and…

(LAUGHTER)

Lots of things coming from all directions.

WEBB: You got the lucky (inaudible).

CLINTON: You know, I have to say, I was very pleased when Governor O’Malley endorsed me for president in 2008, and I enjoyed his strong support in that campaign. And I consider him, obviously, a friend.

Let me say — because there’s a lot of loose talk going on here — we are already flying in Syria just as we are flying in Iraq. The president has made a very tough decision. What I believe and why I have advocated that the no-fly zone — which of course would be in a coalition — be put on the table is because I’m trying to figure out what leverage we have to get Russia to the table. You know, diplomacy is not about getting to the perfect solution. It’s about how you balance the risks.

COOPER: Thank you.

CLINTON: And I think we have an opportunity here — and I know that inside the administration this is being hotly debated — to get that leverage to try to get the Russians to have to deal with everybody in the region and begin to move toward a political, diplomatic solution in Syria.

COOPER: Thank you, Secretary.

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: Senator Webb, you said as president you would never have used military force in Libya and that the attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi was, in your words, “inevitable.” Should Secretary Clinton have seen that attack coming?

WEBB: Look, let’s start — I’ve been trying to get in this conversation for about 10 minutes — let’s start with why Russia is in Syria right now. There are three strategic failings that have allowed this to occur. The first was the invasion of Iraq, which destabilized ethnic elements in Iraq and empowered Iran. The second was the Arab Spring, which created huge vacuums in Libya and in Syria that allowed terrorist movements to move in there. And the third was the recent deal allowing Iran to move forward and eventually acquire a nuclear weapon, which sent bad signals, bad body language into the region about whether we are acquiescing in Iran becoming a stronger piece of the formula in that part of the world.

Now, I say this as someone who spent five years in the Pentagon and who opposed the war in Iraq, whose son fought in Iraq, I’ve fought in Vietnam. But if you want a place where we need to be in terms of our national strategy, a focus, the greatest strategic threat that we have right now is resolving our relationship with China. And we need to do this because of their aggression in the region. We need to do it because of the way they treat their own people.

COOPER: Senator…

WEBB: And I would say this. I’ve been waiting for 10 minutes. I will say this.

COOPER: You’re over your time as of now.

WEBB: I will — well, you’ve let a lot of people go over their time. I would say this…

COOPER: You agreed to these debate rules.

WEBB: … to the unelected, authoritarian government of China: You do not own the South China Sea. You do not have the right to conduct cyber warfare against tens of millions of American citizens. And in a Webb administration, we will do something about that.

COOPER: Senator Sanders, I want you to be able to respond. SANDERS: Pardon me?

COOPER: I’d like you to be able to respond and get in on this.

SANDERS: Well, I think Mr. Putin is going to regret what he is doing. I think that when he gets into that…

COOPER: He doesn’t seem to be the type of guy to regret a lot.

SANDERS: Well, I think he’s already regretting what he did in Crimea and what he is doing in the Ukraine. I think he is really regretting the decline of his economy. And I think what he is trying to do now is save some face. But I think when Russians get killed in Syria and when he gets bogged down, I think the Russian people are going to give him a message that maybe they should come home, maybe they should start working with the United States to rectify the situation now.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, on the campaign trail, Governor Webb has said that he would never have used military force in Libya and that the attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi was inevitable. Should you have seen that attack coming?

CLINTON: Well, let’s remember what was going on. We had a murderous dictator, Gadhafi, who had American blood on his hands, as I’m sure you remember, threatening to massacre large numbers of the Libyan people. We had our closest allies in Europe burning up the phone lines begging us to help them try to prevent what they saw as a mass genocide, in their words. And we had the Arabs standing by our side saying, “We want you to help us deal with Gadhafi.”

Our response, which I think was smart power at its best, is that the United States will not lead this. We will provide essential, unique capabilities that we have, but the Europeans and the Arabs had to be first over the line. We did not put one single American soldier on the ground in Libya. And I’ll say this for the Libyan people.

COOPER: But American citizens did lose their lives in Benghazi.

CLINTON: But let — I’ll get to that. But I think it’s important, since I understand Senator Webb’s very strong feelings about this, to explain where we were then and to point out that I think President Obama made the right decision at the time.

And the Libyan people had a free election the first time since 1951. And you know what, they voted for moderates, they voted with the hope of democracy. Because of the Arab Spring, because of a lot of other things, there was turmoil to be followed.

But unless you believe the United States should not send diplomats to any place that is dangerous, which I do not, then when we send them forth, there is always the potential for danger and risk.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley?

WEBB: Can I…

(CROSSTALK)

O’MALLEY: Anderson, I think we are learning…

(CROSSTALK)

O’MALLEY: Anderson, I think there’s lessons to be learned from Benghazi. And those lessons are that we need to do a much better job as a nation of having human intelligence on the ground so that we know who the emerging next generation leaders are that are coming up to replace a dictator when his time on this planet ends.

And I believe that’s what Chris Stevens was trying to do. But he did not have the tools. We have failed as a country to invest in the human intelligence that would allow us to make not only better decisions in Libya, but better decisions in Syria today.

And it’s a huge national security failing.

COOPER: Senator Webb, I want you to be able to respond.

WEBB: Thank you.

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: Senator Webb? WEBB: This is not about Benghazi per se. To me it is the inevitability of something like Benghazi occurring in the way that we intervened in Libya. We had no treaties at risk. We had no Americans at risk. There was no threat of attack or imminent attack.

There is plenty of time for a president to come to the Congress and request authority to use military force in that situation. I called for it on the Senate floor again and again. I called for it in Senate hearings.

It is not a wise thing to do. And if people think it was a wise thing to do, try to get to the Tripoli airport today. You can’t do it.

COOPER: Secretary (sic) Webb, you served in Vietnam. You’re a marine. Once a marine, always a marine. You served as a marine in Vietnam. You’re a decorated war hero. You eventually became secretary of the navy.

During the Vietnam War, the man standing next to you, Senator Sanders, applied for status as a conscientious objector. Given his history, can he serve as a credible commander-in-chief?

WEBB: Everybody makes their decisions when the time there is conscription. And as long as they go through the legal process that our country requires, I respect that. And it would be for the voters to decide whether Senator Sanders or anyone else should be president.

I will say this, coming from the position that I’ve come from, from a military family, with my brother a marine, my son was a marine in Iraq, I served as a marine, spending five years in the Pentagon, I am comfortable that I am the most qualified person standing up here today to be your commander-in-chief.

COOPER: Senator Sanders, tell an American soldier who is watching right now tonight in Afghanistan why you can be commander-in- chief given that you applied for conscientious objector status.

SANDERS: Well, first of all, let me applaud my good friend Jim Webb for his service to this country in so many ways.

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: Jim and I, under Jim’s leadership, as he indicated, passed the most significant veterans education bill in recent history. We followed suit with a few years later passing, under my leadership, the most significant veterans’ health care legislation in the modern history of this country.

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: When I was a young man — I’m not a young man today. When I was a young man, I strongly opposed the war in Vietnam. Not the brave men like Jim who fought in that war, but the policy which got us involved in that war. That was my view then.

(CHEERING AND APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: I am not a pacifist, Anderson. I supported the war in Afghanistan. I supported President Clinton’s effort to deal with ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. I support air strikes in Syria and what the president is trying to do.

Yes, I happen to believe from the bottom of my heart that war should be the last resort that we have got to exercise diplomacy. But yes, I am prepared to take this country into war if that is necessary.

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: Very quickly, 30 seconds for each of you. Governor Chafee, who or what is the greatest national security threat to the United States? I want to go down the line.

CHAFEE: OK. I just have to answer one thing that Senator Webb said about the Iran deal, because I’m a strong proponent of what President Obama — and he said that because of that the Iran deal that enabled Russia to come in.

No, that’s not true, Senator Webb. I respect your foreign policy chops. But Russia is aligned with Iran and with Assad and the Alawite Shias in Syria. So that Iran deal did not allow Russia to come in.

COOPER: OK. Senator, I can give you 30 seconds to respond.

WEBB: I believe that the signal that we sent to the region when the Iran nuclear deal was concluded was that we are accepting Iran’s greater position on this very important balance of power, among our greatest ally Israel, and the Sunnis represented by the Saudi regime, and Iran. It was a position of weakness and I think it encouraged the acts that we’ve seen in the past several weeks.

COOPER: Thirty seconds for each of you. Governor Chafee, what is the greatest national security threat to the United States?

CHAFEE: It’s certainly the chaos in the Middle East. There’s no doubt about it.

COOPER: OK.

CHAFEE: And it all started with the Iraq invasion.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley?

O’MALLEY: I believe that nuclear Iran remains the biggest threat, along with the threat of ISIL; climate change, of course, makes cascading threats even more (inaudible).

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, the greatest national security threat?

CLINTON: I — I think it has to be continued threat from the spread of nuclear weapons, nuclear material that can fall into the wrong hands. I know the terrorists are constantly seeking it, and that’s why we have to stay vigilant, but also united around the world to prevent that.

COOPER: Senator Sanders, greatest national security threat?

SANDERS: The scientific community is telling us that if we do not address the global crisis of climate change, transform our energy system away from fossil fuel to sustainable energy, the planet that we’re going to be leaving our kids and our grandchildren may well not be habitable. That is a major crisis.

COOPER: Senator Webb?

WEBB: Our greatest long-term strategic challenge is our relation with China. Our greatest day-to-day threat is cyber warfare against this country. Our greatest military-operational threat is resolving the situations in the Middle East.

COOPER: All right. We’re going to take a short break. Do these candidates see eye to eye on an issue that is driving a big wedge between Republicans? That is next.

We’ll be right back.

(APPLAUSE)

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

COOPER: And welcome back. We are live in Nevada, in Las Vegas, at the Wynn Resort for the first Democratic presidential debate. The questions continue.

We begin with Secretary Clinton. Secretary Clinton, you are going to be testifying before Congress next week about your e-mails. For the last eight months, you haven’t been able to put this issue behind you. You dismissed it; you joked about it; you called it a mistake. What does that say about your ability to handle far more challenging crises as president?

CLINTON: Well, I’ve taken responsibility for it. I did say it was a mistake. What I did was allowed by the State Department, but it wasn’t the best choice.

And I have been as transparent as I know to be, turning over 55,000 pages of my e-mails, asking that they be made public. And you’re right. I am going to be testifying. I’ve been asking to testify for some time and to do it in public, which was not originally agreed to.

But let’s just take a minute here and point out that this committee is basically an arm of the Republican National Committee.

(APPLAUSE)

It is a partisan vehicle, as admitted by the House Republican majority leader, Mr. McCarthy, to drive down my poll numbers. Big surprise. And that’s what they have attempted to do.

I am still standing. I am happy to be part of this debate.

(APPLAUSE)

And I intend to keep talking about the issues that matter to the American people. You know, I believe strongly that we need to be talking about what people talk to me about, like how are we going to make college affordable? How are we going to pay down student debt?

COOPER: Secretary…

CLINTON: How are we going to get health care for everybody…

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, Secretary Clinton, with all due respect, it’s a little hard — I mean, isn’t it a little bit hard to call this just a partisan issue? There’s an FBI investigation, and President Obama himself just two days ago said this is a legitimate issue.

CLINTON: Well, I never said it wasn’t legitimate. I said that I have answered all the questions and I will certainly be doing so again before this committee.

But I think it would be really unfair not to look at the entire picture. This committee has spent $4.5 million of taxpayer money, and they said that they were trying to figure out what we could do better to protect our diplomats so that something like Benghazi wouldn’t happen again. There were already seven committee reports about what to do. So I think it’s pretty clear what their obvious goal is.

COOPER: Thank you.

CLINTON: But I’ll be there. I’ll answer their questions. But tonight, I want to talk not about my e-mails, but about what the American people want from the next president of the United States.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Senator Sanders?

SANDERS: Let me say this.

(APPLAUSE)

Let me say — let me say something that may not be great politics. But I think the secretary is right, and that is that the American people are sick and tired of hearing about your damn e-mails.

(APPLAUSE)

CLINTON: Thank you. Me, too. Me, too.

SANDERS: You know? The middle class — Anderson, and let me say something about the media, as well. I go around the country, talk to a whole lot of people. Middle class in this country is collapsing. We have 27 million people living in poverty. We have massive wealth and income inequality. Our trade policies have cost us millions of decent jobs. The American people want to know whether we’re going to have a democracy or an oligarchy as a result of Citizens Union. Enough of the e-mails. Let’s talk about the real issues facing America.

(APPLAUSE)

CLINTON: Thank you, Bernie. Thank you.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: It’s obviously very popular in this crowd, and it’s — hold on.

(APPLAUSE)

I know that plays well in this room. But I got to be honest, Governor Chafee, for the record, on the campaign trail, you’ve said a different thing. You said this is a huge issue. Standing here in front of Secretary Clinton, are you willing to say that to her face?

CHAFEE: Absolutely. We have to repair American credibility after we told the world that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, which he didn’t. So there’s an issue of American credibility out there. So any time someone is running to be our leader, and a world leader, which the American president is, credibility is an issue out there with the world. And we have repair work to be done. I think we need someone that has the best in ethical standards as our next president. That’s how I feel.
COOPER: Secretary Clinton, do you want to respond?

CLINTON: No.

COOPER: Governor — Governor…

(APPLAUSE)

Governor O’Malley…

(APPLAUSE)

Governor, it’s popular in the room, but a lot of people do want to know these answers.

Governor O’Malley, you expressed concern on the campaign trail that the Democratic Party is, and I quote, “being defined by Hillary Clinton’s email scandal.”

You heard her answer, do you still feel that way tonight?

O’MALLEY: I believe that now that we’re finally having debates, Anderson, that we don’t have to be defined by the email scandal, and how long — what the FBI’s asking about. Instead, we can talk about affordable college, making college debt free, and all the issues. Which is why — and I see the chair of the DNC here, look how glad we are actually to be talking about the issues that matter the most to people around the kitchen table.

We need to get wages to go up, college more affordable…

COOPER: …Thank you, governor.

O’MALLEY: …we need to make American 100 percent clean electric by 2050.

COOPER: I want to talk about issues of race in America, for that I want to start of with Don Lemon.

DON LEMON, CNN ANCHOR: Alright, Anderson, thank you very much. I’m not sure how to follow that, but this question is about something that has tripped some of the candidates up out on the campaign trail. Can you hear me?

Can’t hear me in the room. OK, here we go again, as I said…

WILKINS: …law school. My question for the candidates is, do black lives matter, or do all lives matter?

COOPER: The question from Arthur…

LEMON: …There we go…

COOPER: …Do black lives matter, or do all lives matter? Let’s put that question to Senator Sanders.

SANDERS: Black lives matter.

(CHEERING)

SANDERS: And the reason — the reason those words matter is the African American community knows that on any given day some innocent person like Sandra Bland can get into a car, and then three days later she’s going to end up dead in jail, or their kids…

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: …are going to get shot. We need to combat institutional racism from top to bottom, and we need major, major reforms in a broken criminal justice system…

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: …In which we have more people in jail than China. And, I intended to tackle that issue. To make sure that our people have education and jobs rather than jail cells.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, the question from Arthur was do black lives matter, or do all lives matter?

O’MALLEY: Anderson, the point that the Black Lives Matter movement is making is a very, very legitimate and serious point, and that is that as a nation we have undervalued the lives of black lives, people of color.

When I ran for Mayor of Baltimore — and we we burying over 350 young men ever single year, mostly young, and poor, and black, and I said to our legislature, at the time when I appeared in front of them as a mayor, that if we were burying white, young, poor men in these number we would be marching in the streets and there would be a different reaction.

Black lives matter, and we have a lot of work to do to reform our criminal justice system, and to address race relations in our country.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, what would you do for African Americans in this country that President Obama couldn’t?

CLINTON: Well, I think that President Obama has been a great moral leader on these issues, and has laid out an agenda that has been obstructed by the Republicans at every turn, so…

(APPLAUSE)

CLINTON: …So, what we need to be doing is not only reforming criminal justice — I have talked about that at some length, including things like body cameras, but we also need to be following the recommendations of the commissioner that President Obama empanelled on policing. There is an agenda there that we need to be following up on.

Similarly, we need to tackle mass incarceration, and this may be the only bi-partisan issue in the congress this year. We actually have people on both sides of the aisle who have reached the same conclusion, that we can not keep imprisoning more people than anybody else in the world.

But, I believe that the debate, and the discussion has to go further, Anderson, because we’ve got to do more about the lives of these children. That’s why I started off by saying we need to be committed to making it possible for every child to live up to his or her god given potential. That is…

COOPER: …Thank you, Senator…

CLINTON: …really hard to do if you don’t have early childhood education…

COOPER: Senator…

CLINTON: …if you don’t have schools that are able to meet the needs of the people, or good housing, there’s a long list…

(APPLAUSE)

CLINTON: …We need a new New Deal for communities of color…

COOPER: Senator Webb?

WEBB: I hope I can get that kind of time here. As a President of the United States, every life in this country matters. At the same time, I believe I can say to you, I have had a long history of working with the situation of African Americans.

We’re talking about criminal justice reform, I risked my political life raising the issue of criminal justice reform when I ran for the Senate in Virginia in 2006. I had democratic party political consultants telling me I was committing political suicide.

We led that issue in the congress. We started a national debate on it. And it wasn’t until then that the Republican Party started joining in.

I also represented a so-called war criminal, an African American Marine who was wounded — who was convicted of murder in Vietnam, for six years. He took his life three years into this. I cleared his name after — after three years.

COOPER: Thanks, sir.

WEBB: And I put the African American soldier on the Mall. I made that recommendation and fought for it. So, if you want someone who is — can stand up in front of you right now and say I have done the hard job, I have taken the risks, I am your person.

COOPER: Senator Sanders, let’s talk about income inequality. Wages and incomes are flat. You’ve argued that the gap between rich and poor is wider than at any time since the 1920s. We’ve had a Democratic president for seven years. What are you going to be able to do that President Obama didn’t?

SANDERS: Well, first of all, let’s remember where we were when Bush left office. We were losing 800,000 jobs a month. And I know my Republican friends seem to have some amnesia on this issue, but the world’s financial crisis was on — the world’s financial markets system was on the verge of collapse. That’s where we were.

Are we better off today than we were then? Absolutely. But the truth is that for the 40 years, the great middle class of this country has been disappearing. And in my view what we need to do is create millions of jobs by rebuilding our crumbling infrastructure; raise the minimum wage to $15 an hour; pay equity for women workers; and our disastrous trade policies, which have cost us millions of jobs; and make every public college and university in this country tuition free.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton…

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: I’ll let you jump in a moment. Everybody will get in on this in a moment.

Secretary Clinton, how would you address this issue? In all candor, you and your husband are part of the one percent. How can you credibly represent the views of the middle class?

CLINTON: Well, you know, both Bill and I have been very blessed. Neither of us came from wealthy families and we’ve worked really hard our entire lives. And I want to make sure every single person in this country has the same opportunities that he and I have had, to make the most of their God-given potential and to have the chances that they should have in America for a good education, good job training, and then good jobs.

I have a five point economic plan, because this inequality challenge we face, we have faced it at other points. It’s absolutely right. It hasn’t been this bad since the 1920s. But if you look at the Republicans versus the Democrats when it comes to economic policy, there is no comparison. The economy does better when you have a Democrat in the White House and that’s why we need to have a Democrat in the White House in January 2017.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, (inaudible). O’MALLEY: Yes. Anderson, I want to associate myself with many of the items that the senator from Vermont mentioned, and I actually did them in our state. We raised the minimum wage, passed the living wage, invested more in infrastructure, went four years in a row without a penny’s increase in college tuition.

But there’s another piece that Senator Sanders left out tonight, but he’s been excellent about underscoring that. And that is that we need to separate the casino, speculative, mega-bank gambling that we have to insure with our money, from the commercial banking — namely, reinstating Glass-Steagall.

Secretary Clinton mentioned my support eight years ago. And Secretary, I was proud to support you eight years ago, but something happened in between, and that is, Anderson, a Wall Street crash that wiped out millions of jobs and millions of savings for families. And we are still just as vulnerable Paul Volcker says today.

We need to reinstate Glass-Steagall and that’s a huge difference on this stage among us as candidates.

COOPER: Just for viewers at home who may not be reading up on this, Glass-Steagall is the Depression-era banking law repealed in 1999 that prevented commercial banks from engaging in investment banking and insurance activities.

Secretary Clinton, he raises a fundamental difference on this stage. Senator Sanders wants to break up the big Wall Street banks. You don’t. You say charge the banks more, continue to monitor them. Why is your plan better?

CLINTON: Well, my plan is more comprehensive. And frankly, it’s tougher because of course we have to deal with the problem that the banks are still too big to fail. We can never let the American taxpayer and middle class families ever have to bail out the kind of speculative behavior that we saw.

But we also have to worry about some of the other players — AIG, a big insurance company; Lehman Brothers, an investment bank. There’s this whole area called “shadow banking.” That’s where the experts tell me the next potential problem could come from.

CLINTON: So I’m with both Senator Sanders and Governor O’Malley in putting a lot of attention onto the banks. And the plan that I have put forward would actually empower regulators to break up big banks if we thought they posed a risk. But I want to make sure we’re going to cover everybody, not what caused the problem last time, but what could cause it next time.

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: Senator Sanders, Secretary Clinton just said that her policy is tougher than yours.

SANDERS: Well, that’s not true.

(LAUGHTER)

COOPER: Why?

SANDERS: Let us be clear that the greed and recklessness and illegal behavior of Wall Street, where fraud is a business model, helped to destroy this economy and the lives of millions of people.

(APPLAUSE)

Check the record. In the 1990s — and all due respect — in the 1990s, when I had the Republican leadership and Wall Street spending billions of dollars in lobbying, when the Clinton administration, when Alan Greenspan said, “what a great idea it would be to allow these huge banks to merge,” Bernie Sanders fought them, and helped lead the opposition to deregulation.

(APPLAUSE)

Today, it is my view that when you have the three…

COOPER: Senator…

SANDERS: …largest banks in America — are much bigger than they were when we bailed them out for being too big to fail, we have got to break them up.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, you have to be able to respond. He brought you up.

CLINTON: Yeah.

You know, I — I respect the passion an intensity. I represented Wall Street, as a senator from New York, and I went to Wall Street in December of 2007 — before the big crash that we had — and I basically said, “cut it out! Quit foreclosing on homes! Quit engaging in these kinds of speculative behaviors.”

I took on the Bush administration for the same thing. So I have thought deeply and long about what we’re going to do to do exactly what I think both the senator and the governor want, which is to rein in and stop this risk.

And my plan would have the potential of actually sending the executives to jail. Nobody went to jail after $100 billion in fines were paid…

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: (inaudible)

CLINTON: …and would give regulators the authority to go after the big banks.

COOPER: Thank you. Thank you. Senator Sanders…

CLINTON: But I’m telling you — I will say it tonight. If only you look at the big banks, you may be missing the forest for the trees.

(CROSSTALK)

WEBB: Bernie, say my name so I can get into this.

SANDERS: I will, just a second.

WEBB: OK. Thank you.

(LAUGHTER)

SANDERS: I’ll tell him.

In my view, Secretary Clinton, you do not — Congress does not regulate Wall Street. Wall Street regulates Congress.

(APPLAUSE)

And we have gotta break off these banks. Going to them…

CLINTON: So…

SANDERS: …and saying, “please, do the right thing”…

CLINTON: …no, that’s not what…

SANDERS: …is kind of naive.

CLINTON: …that — I think Dodd-Frank was a very…

WEBB: Anderson, I need to jump in (inaudible).

CLINTON: …good start, and I think that we have to implement it. We have to prevent the Republicans from ripping it apart. We have to save the Consumer Financial Protection board, which is finally beginning to act to protect consumers.

(APPLAUSE)

We have work to do. You’ve got no argument from me. But I know, if we don’t come in with a very tough and comprehensive approach, like the plan I’m recommending, we’re going to be behind instead of ahead…

COOPER: Governor O’Malley? Where do you stand?

CLINTON: …on what the next crisis could be.

O’MALLEY: Anderson, look, this is — the big banks — I mean, once we repealed Glass-Steagall back in the late 1999s (ph), the big banks, the six of them, went from controlling, what, the equivalent of 15 percent of our GDP to now 65 percent of our GDP.

And — (inaudible) right before this debate, Secretary Clinton’s campaign put out a lot of reversals on positions on Keystone and many other things. But one of them that we still have a great difference on, Madam Secretary, is that you are not for Glass-Steagall.

You are not for putting a firewall between this speculative, risky shadow banking behavior. I am, and the people of our country need a president who’s on their side, willing to protect the Main Street economy from recklessness on Wall Street.

We have to fulfill…

COOPER: Secretary Clinton…

O’MALLEY: …our promise.

COOPER: I have to let you respond.

(APPLAUSE)

CLINTON: Well, you know, everybody on this stage has changed a position or two. We’ve been around a cumulative quite some period of time.

(LAUGHTER)

You know, we know that if you are learning, you’re going to change your position. I never took a position on Keystone until I took a position on Keystone.

But I have been on the forefront of dealing with climate change, starting in 2009, when President Obama and I crashed (ph) a meeting with the Chinese and got them to sign up to the first international agreement to combat climate change that they’d ever joined.

So I’m…

COOPER: Thank you.

CLINTON: …not taking a back seat to anybody on my values…

COOPER: Thank…

CLINTON: …my principles and the results that I get.

COOPER: Senator Sanders…

(APPLAUSE)

Senator Sanders, in 2008, congressional leaders were told, without the 2008 bailout, the U.S. was possibly days away from a complete meltdown. Despite that, you still voted against it.

As president, would you stand by your principles if it risked the country’s financial stability?

SANDERS: Well, I remember that meeting very well. I remember it like it was yesterday. Hank Paulson, Bernanke came in, and they say, “guys, the economy is going to collapse because Wall Street is going under. It’s going to take the economy with them.”

And you know what I said to Hank Paulson? I said, “Hank, your guys — you come from Goldman Sachs. Your millionaire and billionaire friends caused this problem. How about your millionaire and billionaire friends paying for the bailout, not working families in this country?”

So to answer your question, no, I would not have let the economy collapse. But it was wrong to ask the middle class to bail out Wall Street. And by the way, I want Wall Street now to help kids in this country go to college, public colleges and universities, free with a Wall Street speculation tax.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: We’re going to talk about that in a minute.

But, Senator Webb, I want to get you in. You have said neither party has the guts to take on Wall Street. Is the system rigged?

WEBB: There is a reality that I think we all need to recognize with respect to the power of the financial sector.

And let me just go back a minute and say that on this TARP program, I introduced a piece of legislation calling for a windfall profits tax on the executives of any of these companies that got more than $5 billion, that it was time for them, once they got their compensation and their bonus, to split the rest of the money they made with the nurses and the truck drivers and the soldiers who bailed them out. With respect to the financial sector, I mean, I know that my time has run out but in speaking of changing positions and the position on how this debate has occurred is kind of frustrating because unless somebody mentions my name I can’t get into the discussion.

COOPER: You agreed to these rules and you’re wasting time. So if you would finish your answer, we’ll move on.

WEBB: All right. Well, I’m trying to set a mark here so maybe we can get into a little more later on. This hasn’t been equal time.

But if you want to look at what has happened, if we look at the facts in terms of how we’re going to deal with this, since that crash, in the last 10 years, the amount of the world’s capital economy that Wall Street manages has gone from 44 percent to 55 percent.

That means the Wall Street money managers are not risking themselves as the same way the American people are when they’re going to get their compensation. They’re managing money from all over the world.

We have to take that into consideration when we’re looking at ways to regulate it.

COOPER: Governor Chafee, you have attacked Secretary Clinton for being too close to Wall Street banks. In 1999 you voted for the very bill that made banks bigger.

CHAFEE: The Glass-Steagall was my very first vote, I’d just arrived, my dad had died in office, I was appointed to the office, it was my very first vote.

COOPER: Are you saying you didn’t know what you were voting for?

CHAFEE: I’d just arrived at the Senate. I think we’d get some takeovers, and that was one. It was my very first vote, and it was 92-5. It was the…

COOPER: Well, with all due respect, Governor…

CHAFEE: But let me just say…

COOPER: … what does that say about you that you’re casting a vote for something you weren’t really sure about?

CHAFEE: I think you’re being a little rough. I’d just arrived at the United States Senate. I’d been mayor of my city. My dad had died. I’d been appointed by the governor. It was the first vote and it was 90-5, because it was a conference report.

But let me just say about income inequality. We’ve had a lot of talk over the last few minutes, hours, or tens of minutes, but no one is saying how we’re going to fix it. And it all started with the Bush tax cuts that favored the wealthy.

So let’s go back to the tax code. And 0.6 percent of Americans are at the top echelon, over 464,000, 0.6 Americans. That’s less than 1 percent. But they generate 30 percent of the revenue. And they’re doing fine.

COOPER: Thank you, Governor.

CHAFEE: So there’s still a lot more money to be had from this top echelon. I’m saying let’s have another tier and put that back into the tax bracket. And that will generate $42 billion.

COOPER: I want to bring in Dana Bash.

CHAFEE: And then we can help the middle class and hard-earning Americans — hard-working Americans.

COOPER: Dana?

BASH: Thank you.

CNN visited college campuses, along with Facebook. And not surprisingly college affordability was among the most pressing issue.

Senator Sanders, you’ve mentioned a couple of times you do have a plan to make public colleges free for everyone. Secretary Clinton has criticized that in saying she’s not in favor of making a college free for Donald Trump’s kids.

Do you think taxpayers should pick up the tab for wealthy children?

SANDERS: Well, let me tell you, Donald Trump and his billionaire friends under my policies are going to pay a hell of a lot more in taxes today — taxes in the future than they’re paying today.

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: But in terms of education, this is what I think. This is the year 2015. A college degree today, Dana, is the equivalent of what a high school degree was 50 years ago.

And what we said 50 years ago and a hundred years ago is that every kid in this country should be able to get a high school education regardless of the income of their family. I think we have to say that is true for everybody going to college.

I think we don’t need a complicated system, which the secretary is talking about, the income goes down, the income goes down, if you’re poor you have to work, and so forth and so on.

I pay for my program, by the way, through a tax on Wall Street speculation, which will not only make public colleges and universities tuition-free, it will substantially lower interest rates on college debt, a major crisis in this country.

(APPLAUSE)

BASH: And, Secretary Clinton, it’s not just college tuition that Senator Sanders is talking about, expanding Social Security and giving all Americans Medicare. What’s wrong with that?

CLINTON: Well, let me address college affordability, because I have a plan that I think will really zero in on what the problems are. First, all the 40 million Americans who currently have student debt will be able to refinance their debt to a low interest rate. That will save thousands of dollars for people who are now struggling under this cumbersome, burdensome college debt.

As a young student in Nevada said to me, the hardest thing about going to college should not be paying for it. So then we have to make it more affordable. How do we make it more affordable? My plan would enable anyone to go to a public college or university tuition free. You would not have to borrow money for tuition.

But I do believe — and maybe it’s because I worked when I went through college; I worked when I went through law school — I think it’s important for everybody to have some part of getting this accomplished. That’s why I call it a compact.

BASH: Secretary Clinton…

CLINTON: But, yes, I would like students to work 10 hours a week…

BASH: Can you answer the…

SANDERS: … in order to make it possible for them to afford their education. And I want colleges to get their costs down. They are outrageously high in what they’re charging.

BASH: Secretary Clinton, the question was not just about tuition, though. It was about Senator Sanders’ plan to expand Social Security, to make Medicare available to all Americans. Is that something that you would support? And if not, why not?

CLINTON: Well, I fully support Social Security. And the most important fight we’re going to have is defending it against continuing Republican efforts to privatize it.

BASH: Do you want to expand it?

CLINTON: I want to enhance the benefits for the poorest recipients of Social Security. We have a lot of women on Social Security, particularly widowed and single women who didn’t make a lot of money during their careers, and they are impoverished, and they need more help from the Social Security system.

And I will focus — I will focus on helping those people who need it the most. And of course I’m going to defend Social Security. I’m going to look for ways to try to make sure it’s solvent into the future. And we also need to talk about health care at some time, because we agree on the goals, we just disagree on the means.

SANDERS: When the Republicans — when the Republicans in the Congress and some Democrats were talking about cutting Social Security and benefits for disabled veterans, for the so-called chained CPI, I founded a caucus called the Defending Social Security Caucus.

My view is that when you have millions of seniors in this country trying to get by — and I don’t know how they do on $11,000, $12,000, $13,000 a year — you don’t cut Social Security, you expand it. And the way you expand it is by lifting the cap on taxable incomes so that you do away with the absurdity of a millionaire paying the same amount into the system as somebody making $118,000. You do that, Social Security is solvent until 2061 and you can expand benefits.

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: Senator Sanders, I want to bring it over to Juan Carlos Lopez from CNN en Espanol. We’re obviously in Nevada. It’s had the highest percentage of undocumented immigrants of any state in the country as of last year. Juan Carlos?

JUAN CARLOS LOPEZ, CNN EN ESPANOL ANCHOR: Gracias, Anderson. Senator Sanders, in 2013, you voted for immigration reform. But in 2007, when Democrats controlled Congress and the Bush White House was onboard, you voted against it. Why should Latino voters trust you now when you left them at the altar at the moment when reform was very close?

SANDERS: I didn’t leave anybody at the altar. I voted against that piece of legislation because it had guest-worker provisions in it which the Southern Poverty Law Center talked about being semi-slavery. Guest workers are coming in, they’re working under terrible conditions, but if they stand up for their rights, they’re thrown out of the country. I was not the only progressive to vote against that legislation for that reason. Tom Harkin, a very good friend of Hillary Clinton’s and mine, one of the leading labor advocates, also voted against that.

LOPEZ: Tom Harkin isn’t running for president. You are.

SANDERS: I know that. But point being is that progressives did vote against that for that reason. My view right now — and always has been — is that when you have 11 million undocumented people in this country, we need comprehensive immigration reform, we need a path toward citizenship, we need to take people out of the shadows.

O’MALLEY: And Juan Carlos — Juan Carlos…

LOPEZ: Secretary Clinton — Secretary Clinton, Governor O’Malley wants to open up Obamacare to millions of undocumented immigrants and their children, including almost 90,000 people right here in Nevada. Do you?

CLINTON: Well, first of all, I want to make sure every child gets health care. That’s why I helped to create the Children’s Health Insurance Program, and I want to support states that are expanding health care and including undocumented children and others.

I want to open up the opportunity for immigrants to be able to buy in to the exchanges under the Affordable Care Act. I think to go beyond that, as I understand what Governor O’Malley has recommended, so that they would get the same subsidies.

I think that is — it raises so many issues. It would be very difficult to administer, it needs to be part of a comprehensive immigration reform, when we finally do get to it.

LOPEZ: Governor O’Malley?

O’MALLEY: Juan Carlos, I think what you’ve heard up here is some of the old thinking on immigration reform, and that’s why it’s gridlocked. We need to understand that our country is stronger in every generation by the arrival of new American immigrants. That is why I have put out a policy for comprehensive immigration reform, that is why I would go further than President Obama has on DACA, and DAPA.

I mean, we are a nation of immigrants, we are made stronger by immigrants. Do you think for a second that simply because somebody’s standing in a broken que on naturalization they’re not going to go to the hospital, and that care isn’t going to fall on to our insurance rates? I am for a generous, compassionate America that says we’re all in this together. We need comprehensive

COOPER: Senator Webb…

O’MALLEY: …immigration reform. It’ll make wages go up in America $250 for every year…

LOPEZ: Senator Webb, do you support the undocumented immigrants getting Obamacare?

WEBB: I wouldn’t have a problem with that. Let me start by saying my wife is an immigrant. She was a refugee, her family escaped from Vietnam on a boat– her entire extended family, after the communists took over, when hundreds of thousands of people were out there and thousands of them were dying. Went to two refugee camps, she never spoke English in her home, and she ended, as I said, graduating from Cornell Law School. That’s not only American dream, that’s a value that we have with a good immigration system in place. No country has — is a country without defining its borders. We need to resolve this issue. I actually introduced an amendment in the 2007 immigration bill…

LOPEZ: …Thank you, Senator.

WEBB: …Giving a pathway to citizenship to those people who had come here, and put down their roots, and met as a series of standards…

COOPER: …Thank you, Senator.

WEBB: …lost (ph) — I introduced that in 2007 — We need a comprehensive reform, and we need to be able to define our borders.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton?

CLINTON: I want to follow up because I think underneath Juan Carlos’ important questions, there is such a difference between everything you’re hearing here on this stage, and what we hear from the Republicans.

(APPLAUSE)

O’MALLEY: Here. Here.

(CHEERING) (APPLAUSE)

CLINTON: Demonize hard-working immigrants who have insulted them. You know, I came to Las Vegas in, I think, May. Early may. Met with a group of DREAMers, I wish everybody in America could meet with this young people, to hear their stories, to know their incredible talent, their determination, and that’s why I would go further…

COOPER: …Secretary…

CLINTON: …than even the executive orders that President Obama has signed when I’m president.

(CROSS TALK)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, let me ask you. Two of your rivals from your left, Governor O’Malley, and Senator Sanders, want to provide instate college tuition to undocumented immigrants. Where do you stand on that?

CLINTON: My plan would support any state that takes that position, and would work with those states and encourage more states to do the same thing.

COOPER: So, on the record, you believe that undocumented immigrants should get instate college tuition.

CLINTON: If their states agree, then we want more states to do the same thing.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley?

O’MALLEY: Anderson, we actually did this in my state of Maryland. We passed…

(APPLAUSE)

O’MALLEY: We passed a state version of the DREAM Act…

(CHEERING)

O’MALLEY: …And a lot of the xenophobes, the immigrant haters like some that we’ve heard like, Donald Trump, that carnival barker in the Republican party…

(CHEERING) (APPLAUSE)

O’MALLEY: Tried to mischaracterize it as free tuition for illegal immigrants. But, we took our case to the people when it was petitioned to referendum, and we won with 58 percent of the vote. The more our children learn, the more they will earn, and that’s true of children who have yet to be naturalized…

COOPER: …Senator…

O’MALLEY: …but will become American citizens…

COOPER: Senator Sanders, you talked about your record on the Veteran affairs committee. You served on that committee for the last eight years, including two years as its chairman while veterans died waiting for health care. You and Senator McCain ultimately addressed the issue with bi-partisan legislation. Why did it take 18 Inspector General reports, and a CNN investigation, and others, before you and your colleagues took action?

SANDERS: Well, I was chairman for two years, and when I was chairman we did take action. What we did is pass a $15 billion dollar piece of legislation which brought in many, many new doctors, and nurses into the V.A. so that veterans in this country could get the health care when they needed it, and not be on long waiting lines.

And, the other part of that legislation said that if a veteran is living more than 40 miles away from a V.A. facility, that veteran could get health care from the community health center, or the private sector. As a result of that legislation, we went further in than any time in recent history in improving health care for the men and women of this country who put their lives on the line to defend them.

COOPER: Governor Chafee, you and Hillary Clinton both voted for the Patriot Act which created the NSA surveillance program. You’ve emphasized civil liberties, privacy during your campaign. Aren’t these two things in conflict?

CHAFEE: No, that was another 99 to one vote for the Patriot Act, and it was seen as at the time modernizing our ability to do what we’ve always done to tap phones which always required a warrant. And I voted for that.

COOPER: Do you regret that vote?

CHAFEE: No, no. As long as you’re getting a warrant, I believe that under the Fourth Amendment, you should be able to do surveillance, but you need a warrant. That’s what the Fourth Amendment says. And in the Patriot Act, section 215 started to get broadened too far. So I would be in favor of addressing and reforming section 215 of the Patriot Act.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, do you regret your vote on the Patriot Act?

CLINTON: No, I don’t. I think that it was necessary to make sure that we were able after 9/11 to put in place the security that we needed. And it is true that it did require that there be a process. What happened, however, is that the Bush administration began to chip away at that process. And I began to speak out about their use of warrantless surveillance and the other behavior that they engaged in.

We always have to keep the balance of civil liberties, privacy and security. It’s not easy in a democracy, but we have to keep it in mind.

COOPER: Senator — Senator Sanders, you’re the only one on this stage who voted against the Patriot Act in 2001…

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: It was 99 to one and I was maybe the one. I don’t know.

COOPER: … and the reauthorization votes. Let me ask you, if elected, would you shut down the NSA surveillance program?

SANDERS: I’m sorry?

COOPER: Would you shut down the NSA surveillance program?

SANDERS: Absolutely. Of course.

COOPER: You would, point blank.

SANDERS: Well, I would shut down — make — I’d shut down what exists right now is that virtually every telephone call in this country ends up in a file at the NSA. That is unacceptable to me. But it’s not just government surveillance. I think the government is involved in our e-mails; is involved in our websites. Corporate America is doing it as well.

If we are a free country, we have the right to be free. Yes, we have to defend ourselves against terrorism, but there are ways to do that without impinging on our constitutional rights and our privacy rights.

O’MALLEY (?): Anderson, the NSA…

COOPER: Governor Chafee, Edward Snowden, is he a traitor or a hero?

CHAFEE: No, I would bring him home. The courts have ruled that what he did — what he did was say the American…

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: Bring him home, no jail time?

CHAFEE: … the American government was acting illegally. That’s what the federal courts have said; what Snowden did showed that the American government was acting illegally for the Fourth Amendment. So I would bring him home.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, hero or traitor?

CLINTON: He broke the laws of the United States. He could have been a whistleblower. He could have gotten all of the protections of being a whistleblower. He could have raised all the issues that he has raised. And I think there would have been a positive response to that.

COOPER: Should he do jail time?

ClINTON: In addition — in addition, he stole very important information that has unfortunately fallen into a lot of the wrong hands. So I don’t think he should be brought home without facing the music.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, Snowden?

(APPLAUSE)

O’MALLEY: Anderson, Snowden put a lot of Americans’ lives at risk. Snowden broke the law. Whistleblowers do not run to Russia and try to get protection from Putin. If he really believes that, he should be back here.

COOPER: Senator Sanders, Edward Snowden?

SANDERS: I think Snowden played a very important role in educating the American people to the degree in which our civil liberties and our constitutional rights are being undermined.

COOPER: Is he a hero?

SANDERS: He did — he did break the law, and I think there should be a penalty to that. But I think what he did in educating us should be taken into consideration before he is (inaudible).

COOPER: Senator Webb, Edward Snowden?

WEBB: I — well, I — I would leave his ultimate judgment to the legal system. Here’s what I do believe. We have a serious problem in terms of the collection of personal information in this country. And one of the things that I did during the FISA bill in 2007, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, was introduce with Russ Feingold two amendments basically saying, “We understand the realities of how you have to collect this broad information in the Internet age, but after a certain period of time, you need to destroy the personal information that you have if people have not been brought — if criminal justice proceedings have not been brought against them.”

We’ve got a vast data bank of information that is ripe for people with bad intentions to be able to use. And they need to be destroyed.

COOPER: Another — another question for each of you, starting with Governor Chafee.

Name the one thing — the one way that your administration would not be a third term of President Obama.

CHAFEE: Certainly, ending the wars. We’ve got to stop these wars. You have to have a new dynamic, a new paradigm. We just spent a half-billion dollars arming and training soldiers, the rebel soldiers in Syria. They quickly join the other side. We bombed the…

(CROSSTALK)

COOPER: President Obama’s generals right now are suggesting keeping troops in Afghanistan after the time he wanted them pulled out. Would you keep them there?

CHAFEE: I’d like to finish my question — my answer.

And also we just bombed a hospital. We’ve had drone strikes that hit civilian weddings. So I would change how we — our approach to the Middle East. We need a new paradigm in the Middle East.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, how would you be different than President Obama’s administration?

O’MALLEY: I would follow through on the promise that the American people thought we made as Democratic Party, to protect the Main Street economy from recklessness on Wall Street. I would push to separate out these too-big-to-jail, too-big-to-fail banks, and put in place Glass-Steagall, a modern Glass-Steagall that creates a firewall so that this wreckage of our economy can never happen again.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, how would you not be a third term of President Obama?

CLINTON: Well, I think that’s pretty obvious. I think being the first woman president would be quite a change from the presidents we’ve had up until this point, including President Obama.

COOPER: Is there a policy difference?

CLINTON: Well, there’s a lot that I would like to do to build on the successes of President Obama, but also, as I’m laying out, to go beyond. And that’s in my economic plans, how I would deal with the prescription drug companies, how I would deal with college, how I would deal with a full range of issues that I’ve been talking about throughout this campaign to go further.

COOPER: Senator Sanders?

SANDERS: I have a lot of respect for president Obama. I have worked with him time and time again on many, many issues. But here’s where I do disagree. I believe that the power of corporate America, the power of Wall Street, the power of the drug companies, the power of the corporate media is so great that the only way we really transform America and do the things that the middle class and working class desperately need is through a political revolution when millions of people begin to come together and stand up and say: Our government is going to work for all of us, not just a handful of billionaires.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Senator Webb, how would you not be a third term for Obama?

WEBB: I got a great deal of admiration and affection for Senator Sanders, but I — Bernie, I don’t think the revolution’s going to come. And I don’t think the Congress is going to pay for a lot of this stuff. And if there would be a major difference between my administration and the Obama administration, it would be in the use of executive authority.

I came up as a committee counsel in the Congress, used to put dozens of bills through the House floor every year as a committee counsel on the Veterans Committee. I have a very strong feeling about how our federal system works and how we need to lead and energize the congressional process instead of allowing these divisions to continue to paralyze what we’re doing. So I would lead — working with both parties in the Congress and working through them in the traditional way that our Constitution sets (ph).

COOPER: Senator Sanders, he cited you. You don’t hear a lot of Democratic presidential candidates talking about revolution. What do you mean?

SANDERS: What I mean is that we need to have one of the larger voter turnouts in the world, not one of the lowest. We need to raise public consciousness. We need the American people to know what’s going on in Washington in a way that today they do not know.

(APPLAUSE)

And when people come together in a way that does not exist now and are prepared to take on the big money interest, then we could bring the kind of change we need.

O’MALLEY: Anderson, I actually have talked about a revolution. What we need is a green energy revolution. We need to move America to a 100 percent clean electric grid by 2050 and create 5 million jobs along the way.

COOPER: And we want to — and we’re going to talk more about climate change and environmental issues coming up. Some of the candidates have tried marijuana, as have pretty much — probably everybody in this room.

(LAUGHTER)

Others have not. Does that influence — does it influence their views on legalization? Find out that and others ahead.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

COOPER: And welcome back to this CNN Democratic presidential debate. It has been quite a night so far. We are in the final block of this debate. All the candidates are back, which I’m very happy to see.

(LAUGHTER)

COOPER: It’s a long story. Let’s continue, shall we?

Secretary Clinton, welcome back.

CLINTON: Well, thank you.

(LAUGHTER)

CLINTON: You know, it does take me a little longer. That’s all I can say.

COOPER: That’s right. Secretary Clinton, Governor O’Malley says the presidency is not a crown to be passed back and forth between two royal families. This year has been the year of the outsider in politics, just ask Bernie Sanders. Why should Democrats embrace an insider like yourself?

CLINTON: Well, I can’t think of anything more of an outsider than electing the first woman president, but I’m not just running because I would be the first woman president.

(APPLAUSE)

CLINTON: I’m running because I have a lifetime of experience in getting results and fighting for people, fighting for kids, for women, for families, fighting to even the odds. And I know what it takes to get things done. I know how to find common ground and I know how to stand my ground. And I think we’re going to need both of those in Washington to get anything that we’re talking about up here accomplished.

So I’m very happy that I have both the commitment of a lifetime and the experience of a lifetime to bring together to offer the American people.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, do you want to tell Secretary Clinton why she shouldn’t get the crown?

O’MALLEY: Well, actually, you know, we had this conversation. And I will share with you that I’ve traveled all around the country, Anderson, and there’s two phrases I keep hearing again and again and again. And they’re the phrases “new leadership” and “getting things done.”

We cannot be this dissatisfied with our gridlocked national politics and an economy where 70 percent of us are earning the same or less than we were 12 years ago, and think that a resort to old names is going to move us forward.

I respect what Secretary Clinton and her husband have done for our country. But our country needs new leadership to move forward.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, you have to be able to respond, if you want.

CLINTON: Well, I would not ask anyone to vote for me based on my last name. I would ask them to listen to what I’m proposing, look at what I’ve accomplished in the Senate, as secretary of of state, and then draw your own conclusion.

I certainly am not campaigning to become president because my last name is Clinton. I’m campaigning because I think I have the right combination of what the country needs, at this point, and I think I can take the fight to the Republicans, because we cannot afford a Republican to succeed Barack Obama as president of the United States.

COOPER: (inaudible).

(APPLAUSE)

Senator Sanders, does she have the right stuff?

SANDERS: I think — I think that there is profound frustration all over this country with establishment politics. I am the only candidate running for president who is not a billionaire, who has raised substantial sums of money, and I do not have a super PAC.

(APPLAUSE)

I am not raising money from millionaires and billionaires, and in fact, tonight, in terms of what a political revolution is about, there are 4,000 house parties — 100,000 people in this country — watching this debate tonight who want real change in this country.

COOPER: we’ve got — we — a lot of questions we’ve got about climate change, and we’re gonna go to Don Lemon. Don?

LEMON: All right. This one is for Martin O’Malley. Anderson, Governor O’Malley, this is from Anna Bettis from Tempe, Arizona. Here it is.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

QUESTION: As a young person, I’m very concerned about climate change and how it will affect my future. As a presidential candidate, what will you do to address climate change?

(END VIDEO CLIP)

LEMON: So, Governor O’Malley, please tell Anna how you would protect the environment better than all the other candidates up on that stage.

O’MALLEY: Yeah.

Anna, I have put forward a plan — and I’m the only candidate, I believe, in either party to do this — to move America forward to a 100 percent clean electric grid by 2050.

We did not land a man on the moon with an all-of-the-above strategy. It was an intentional engineering challenge, and we solved it as a nation. And our nation must solve this one.

So I put forward the plan that would extend the investor tax credits for solar and for wind. If you go across Iowa, you see that 30 percent of their energy now comes from wind. We’re here in Las Vegas, one of the most sustainable cities in America, doing important things in terms of green building, architecture and design.

We can get there as a nation, but it’s going to require presidential leadership. And as president, I intend to sign as my very first order in office the — an order that moves us as a nation and dedicates our resources to solving this problem and moving us to a 100 percent clean electric grid by 2050.

COOPER: Governor…

O’MALLEY: We can do it.

COOPER: …Governor O’Malley, thank you very much.

(APPLAUSE)

Senator Webb, you have a very different view than just about anybody else on this stage, and unlike a lot of Democrats. You’re pro-coal, you’re pro-offshore drilling, you’re pro-Keystone pipeline. Are — again, are you — the question is, are you out of step with the Democratic party?

WEBB: Well, the — the question really is how are we going to solve energy problems here and in the global environment if you really want to address climate change?

And when I was in the Senate, I was an all-of-the-above energy voter. We introduced legislation to bring in alternate energy as well as nuclear power. I’m a strong proponent of nuclear power. It is safe, it is clean. And really, we are not going to solve climate change simply with the laws here.

We’ve done a good job in this country since 1970. If you look at China and India, they’re the greatest polluters in the world. Fifteen out of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are in one of those two countries. We need to solve this in a global way. It’s a global problem and I have been very strong on — on doing that. The — the agreements — the so-called agreements that we have had with China are illusory in terms of the immediate requirements of the — of the Chinese government itself.

So let’s solve this problem in an international way, and then we really will have a — a way to address climate change.

COOPER: Senator Sanders, are you tougher on — on climate change than Secretary Clinton?

SANDERS: Well, I will tell you this. I believe — and Pope Francis made this point. This is a moral issue. The scientists are telling us that we need to move extremely boldly.

I am proud that, along with Senator Barbara Boxer, a few years ago, we introduced the first piece of climate change legislation which called for a tax on carbon.

And let me also tell you that nothing is gonna happen unless we are prepared to deal with campaign finance reform, because the fossil fuel industry is funding the Republican Party, which denies the reality of climate change…

(APPLAUSE)

…and certainly is not prepared to go forward aggressively.

This is a moral issue. We have got to be extremely aggressive in working with China, India, Russia.

COOPER: Senator — thank you, Senator.

SANDERS: The planet — the future of the planet is at stake.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, I want you to be able to respond, then I’m gonna go to (ph) (inaudible).

CLINTON: Well, that — that’s exactly what I’ve been doing. When we met in Copenhagen in 2009 and, literally, President Obama and I were hunting for the Chinese, going throughout this huge convention center, because we knew we had to get them to agree to something. Because there will be no effective efforts against climate change unless China and India join with the rest of the world.

They told us they’d left for the airport; we found out they were having a secret meeting. We marched up, we broke in, we said, “We’ve been looking all over for you. Let’s sit down and talk about what we need to do.” And we did come up with the first international agreement that China has signed.

Thanks to President Obama’s leadership, it’s now gone much further.

COOPER: Thank you. CLINTON: And I do think that the bilateral agreement that President Obama made with the Chinese was significant. Now, it needs to go further, and there will be an international meeting at the end of this year, and we must get verifiable commitments to fight climate change from every country gathered there.

COOPER: Dana Bash?

BASH: Secretary Clinton, you now support mandated paid family leave.

CLINTON: Mm-hmm.

BASH: Carly Fiorina, the first female CEO of a Fortune 50 company, argues, if the government requires paid leave, it will force small businesses to, quote, “hire fewer people and create fewer jobs.” What do you say not only to Carly Fiorina, but also a small-business owner out there who says, you know, I like this idea, but I just can’t afford it?

CLINTON: Well, I’m surprised she says that, because California has had a paid leave program for a number of years. And it’s…

BASH: It’s on the federal level.

CLINTON: Well, but all — well, on a state level, a state as big as many countries in the world. And it has not had the ill effects that the Republicans are always saying it will have. And I think this is — this is typical Republican scare tactics. We can design a system and pay for it that does not put the burden on small businesses.

I remember as a young mother, you know, having a baby wake up who was sick and I’m supposed to be in court, because I was practicing law. I know what it’s like. And I think we need to recognize the incredible challenges that so many parents face, particularly working moms.

I see my good friend, Senator Gillibrand, in the front row. She’s been a champion of this. We need to get a consensus through this campaign, which is why I’m talking about it everywhere I go, and we need to join the rest of the advanced world in having it.

BASH: But Secretary — Secretary Clinton, even many people who agree with you might say, look, this is very hard to do, especially in today’s day and age. There are so many people who say, “Really? Another government program? Is that what you’re proposing? And at the expense of taxpayer money?”

CLINTON: Well, look, you know, when people say that — it’s always the Republicans or their sympathizers who say, “You can’t have paid leave, you can’t provide health care.” They don’t mind having big government to interfere with a woman’s right to choose and to try to take down Planned Parenthood. They’re fine with big government when it comes to that. I’m sick of it.

(APPLAUSE)

You know, we can do these things.

(APPLAUSE)

We should not be paralyzed — we should not be paralyzed by the Republicans and their constant refrain, “big government this, big government that,” that except for what they want to impose on the American people. I know we can afford it, because we’re going to make the wealthy pay for it. That is the way to get it done.

COOPER: Thank you. Senator Sanders?

SANDERS: Yeah, Dana, here’s the point: Every other major country on Earth, every one, including some small countries, say that when a mother has a baby, she should stay home with that baby. We are the only major country. That is an international embarrassment that we do not provide family — paid family and medical leave.

(APPLAUSE)

Second of all, the secretary is right. Republicans tell us we can’t do anything except give tax breaks to billionaires and cut Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid. That’s not what the American people want.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley?

O’MALLEY: Anderson, in our state, we actually expanded family leave. And I have to agree with Secretary Clinton and Senator Sanders. Look, the genius of our nation is that we find ways in every generation to include more of our people more fully in the economic life of our country, and we need to do that for our families, and especially so that women aren’t penalized in having to drop out of the workforce. My wife, Katie, is here with our four kids. And, man, that was a juggle when we had little kids and — and keeping jobs and moving forwards. We would be a stronger nation economically if we had paid family leave.

COOPER: Governor, thank you. The issue now, particularly in this state, is recreational marijuana. I want to go to Juan Carlos Lopez.

LOPEZ: Thank you, Anderson.

Senator Sanders, right here in Nevada, there will be a measure to legalize recreational marijuana on the 2016 ballot. You’ve said you smoked marijuana twice; it didn’t quite work for you. If you were a Nevada resident, how would you vote?

SANDERS: I suspect I would vote yes.

(APPLAUSE)

And I would vote yes because I am seeing in this country too many lives being destroyed for non-violent offenses. We have a criminal justice system that lets CEOs on Wall Street walk away, and yet we are imprisoning or giving jail sentences to young people who are smoking marijuana. I think we have to think through this war on drugs…

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: …which has done an enormous amount of damage. We need to rethink our criminal justice system, we we’ve got a lot of work to do in that area.

O’MALLEY: Juan Carlos?

(APPLAUSE)

LOPEZ: Secretary Clinton, you told Christiane Amanpour you didn’t smoke pot when you were young, and you’re not going to start now.

(LAUGHTER)

LOPEZ: When asked about legalizing recreational marijuana, you told her let’s wait and see how it plays out in Colorado and Washington. It’s been more than a year since you’ve said that. Are you ready to take a position tonight?

CLINTON: No. I think that we have the opportunity through the states that are pursuing recreational marijuana to find out a lot more than we know today. I do support the use of medical marijuana, and I think even there we need to do a lot more research so that we know exactly how we’re going to help people for whom medical marijuana provides relief.

So, I think we’re just at the beginning, but I agree completely with the idea that we have got to stop imprisoning people who use marijuana. Therefore, we need more states, cities, and the federal government to begin to address this so that we don’t have this terrible result that Senator Sanders was talking about where we have a huge population in our prisons for nonviolent, low-level offenses that are primarily due to marijuana.

COOPER: Secretary Clinton, thank you. I want to go to Don Lemon with another Facebook question.

LEMON: Alright, Anderson. This is for Senator Sanders, OK? This is from Carrie (ph) Kang (ph) from Manassas, Virginia, would like would like to ask the Senator, “President Obama has had a difficult time getting Republicans to compromise on just about every agenda. How will you approach this going forward, and will it be any different?”

Senator?

SANDERS: The Republican party, since I’ve been in the Senate, and since President Obama has been in office, has played a terrible, terrible role of being total obstructionists. Every effort that he has made, that some of us have made, they have said no, no, no.

Now, in my view, the only way we can take on the right wing republicans who are, by the way, I hope will not continue to control the Senate and the House when one of us elected President…

(APPLAUSE)

SANDERS: …But the only way we can get things done is by having millions of people coming together. If we want free tuition at public colleges and universities, millions of young people are going to have to demand it, and give the Republicans an offer they can’t refuse.

If we want to raise the minimum wage to $15 bucks an hour, workers are going to have to come together and look the Republicans in the eye, and say, “We know what’s going on. You vote against us, you are out of your job.”

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: We’re going to hear from all the candidates coming up. We’re going to take a short break. More from the candidates in a moment.

(APPLAUSE)

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

COOPER: And welcome back to the final round of the CNN Democratic presidential debate.

This is a question to each of you. Each of you, by the way, are going to have closing statements to make. Each of you will have 90 seconds. But a final question to each of you. If you can, just try to — 15 seconds if you can.

Governor Chafee, Franklin Delano Roosevelt once said, “I ask you to judge me by the enemies I have made.” You’ve all made a few people upset over your political careers. Which enemy are you most proud of?

(LAUGHTER)

CHAFEE: I guess the coal lobby. I’ve worked hard for climate change and I want to work with the coal lobby. But in my time in the Senate, tried to bring them to the table so that we could address carbon dioxide. I’m proud to be at odds with the coal lobby.

COOPER: Governor O’Malley?

O’MALLEY: The National Rifle Association.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton?

CLINTON: Well, in addition to the NRA, the health insurance companies, the drug companies, the Iranians.

(LAUGHTER)

Probably the Republicans. (LAUGHTER)

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Senator Sanders?

SANDERS: As someone who has taken on probably every special interest that there is in Washington, I would lump Wall Street and the pharmaceutical industry at the top of my life of people who do not like me.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Senator Webb?

WEBB: I’d have to say the enemy soldier that threw the grenade that wounded me, but he’s not around right now to talk to.

COOPER: All right. Time for closing statements. Each of you will have 90 seconds.

Governor Chafee, let’s begin with you.

CHAFEE: Thank you, Anderson. Thank you, CNN. And thank you, Facebook, for sponsoring this debate.

America has many challenges confronting us — ending the perpetual wars, addressing climate change, addressing income inequality, funding education, funding infrastructure, funding healthcare, helping black Americans, helping Native Americans. We have many challenges. Who is best able to confront these challenges?

I’ve served in government at many levels. I know what it’s like to solve problems at the local level because I did it as mayor. I know how to get legislation passed through Congress because I did it as a senator. I know how to turn around a state because I did as governor of Rhode Island.

But what I’m most proud of is that in 30 years of public service, I have had no scandals. I have high ethical standards. And what I’m most proud of is my judgment, particularly in the Iraq war vote. There was a lot of pressure — political pressure, public pressure. But I did my homework and I did not believe that the evidence was there that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. And we live now with the consequences.

CHAFEE: So that kind of judgment is what we want in a president going forward. And I’m running for president to end the wars. I want to be the peacemaker. I am a proven peacemaker. Please go to Chafee 2016 to learn more about me. Thank you.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Governor Chafee, thank you very much. Senator Webb, your final statement for 90 seconds.

WEBB: Thank you. Ladies and gentlemen, it’s been a pleasure to be with you tonight. You’ve heard a lot of promises up here; you’ve heard a lot of rhetoric. They all seem to happen during campaigns, and then once the election’s over, people start from scratch again and try to get things done.

One of the things I can promise you, if you look at my record, in and out of government, is that I’ve always been willing to take on a complicated, something unpopular issues, and work them through, the complex issues, and work them through in order to have the solution.

We did it with criminal justice reform. We’ve had a lot of discussion here about criminal justice reform. We did it in other ways. We need a national political strategy for our economy, for our social policy, for social justice, and, by the way, for how you run and manage the most complex bureaucracy in the world, which is the federal government.

I know how to lead. I did it in Vietnam, I did it in the Pentagon, I did it in the Senate, and if you will help me overcome this cavalcade of — of financial irregularities and money that is poisoning our political process, I am ready to do that for you in the White House.

COOPER: Senator Webb, thank you very much.

Governor O’Malley, you have 90 seconds.

O’MALLEY: Anderson, thank you.

I am very, very grateful to have been able to be on this stage with this distinguished group of candidates tonight. And what you heard tonight, Anderson, was a very, very — and all of you watching at home — was a very, very different debate than from the sort of debate you heard from the two presidential Republican debates.

(APPLAUSE)

On this stage — on this stage, you didn’t hear anyone denigrate women, you didn’t hear anyone make racist comments about new American immigrants, you didn’t hear anyone speak ill of another American because of their religious belief.

What you heard instead on this stage tonight was an honest search for the answers that will move our country forward, to move us to a 100 percent clean electric energy grid by 2050, to take the actions that we have always taken as Americans so that we can actually attack injustice in our country, employ more of our people, rebuild our cities and towns, educate our children at higher and better levels, and include more of our people in the economic, social, and political life of our country.

I truly believe that we are standing on the threshold of a new era of American progress. Unless you’ve become discouraged about our gridlock in Congress, talk to our young people under 30, because you’ll never find among them people that want to bash immigrants or people that want to deny rights to gay couples.

(APPLAUSE)

That tells me we are moving to a more connected, generous, and compassionate place, and we need to speak to the goodness within our country.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Governor O’Malley, thank you very much.

Senator Sanders, final, closing thoughts, 90 seconds.

SANDERS: This is a great country, but we have many, many serious problems. We should not be the country that has the highest rate of childhood poverty of any major country and more wealth and income inequality than any other country.

We should not be the only major country on Earth that does not guarantee health care to all of our people as a right of citizenship and we should not be the only major country that does not provide medical and — and parental leave — family and parental leave to all of our families.

Now, at the end of our day, here is the truth that very few candidates will say, is that nobody up here, certainly no Republican, can address the major crises facing our country unless millions of people begin to stand up to the billionaire class that has so much power over our economy and our political life.

Jim Webb is right: Money is pouring in to this campaign through super PACs. We are doing it the old-fashioned way: 650,000 individual contributions. And if people want to help us out, BernieSanders.com. We are averaging $30 bucks apiece. We would appreciate your help.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Secretary Clinton?

CLINTON: Thank you very much, Anderson. And thanks to all the viewers who tuned in tonight.

I think what you did see is that, in this debate, we tried to deal with some of the very tough issues facing our country. That’s in stark contrast to the Republicans who are currently running for president.

What you have to ask yourself is: Who amongst us has the vision for actually making the changes that are going to improve the lives of the American people? Who has the tenacity and the ability and the proven track record of getting that done?

Now, I revere my late mother, and she gave me a lot of good advice. But one of the best pieces of advice she gave me was, you know, the issue is not whether or not you get knocked down. It’s whether you get back up.

America’s been knocked down. That Great Recession, 9 million people lost their jobs, 5 million lost their homes, $13 trillion in wealth disappeared. And although we’ve made progress, we’re standing but not running the way America needs to.

My mission as president will be to raise incomes for hard-working middle-class families and to make sure that we get back to the basic bargain I was raised with: If you work hard and you do your part, you should be able to get ahead and stay ahead.

Please join me in this campaign. Please come and make it clear that America’s best days are still ahead. Thank you very much.

(APPLAUSE)

COOPER: Well, that does it for this Democratic presidential debate. On behalf of everyone at CNN, we want to thank the candidates, our debate partners at Facebook, the Wynn Resort, and the Democratic National Committee. Thanks also to Dana Bash, Juan Carlos Lopez, and Don Lemon. We’ll be back in Las Vegas December 15th, when CNN hosts our next Republican presidential debate. That will be moderated by my colleague, Wolf Blitzer.

Correction: The original version of this story misquoted Sanders’ comments on gun purchases. Sanders said he has “strongly supported instant background checks” for gun buyers over the years.

K2, Change Management Overview

CHANGE MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW

ACCELERATOR GUIDE | ALYSSA VILLABLANCA
2015/05/26

  1. Overview
    1. Change Management Approval Process
    2. Change Management Details
    3. Other Data Sources
      1. RFC Classification
      2. RFC Priority
      3. Comments
  2. Installation
    1. Prerequisites
      1. K2 Requirements
      2. Other Software Requirements
      3. Supported Browsers
    2. K2 Artifacts Installation
  3. REPARING THE ENVIRONMENT
    1. K2 PERMISSIONS
    2. Administrative Tasks For The Change Management Application
  4. Using The New Idea Application
    1. Change Management Reports

CHANGE MANAGEMENT APPROVAL PROCESS
This application allows users to submit a Request for Change (RFC) and go through a process of approval and authorization before finally creating an initial Change Plan. The application was designed to be generic and may need some modifications in order to comply with specific implementations.
The request form submitted by a company employee captures the RFC details and passes them onto a Change Analyst role. The person serving as the Change Analyst can then decide whether the information is valid or not. It can also be routed for rework. If the information is valid, a priority will be set, which will determine the authorizing party. The task will be assigned to a Change Manager if the priority is not an emergency. If it is an emergency, the RFC will be routed to the Emergency Change Advisory Board. Following authorization, the RFC will be passed onto the Change Coordinator who will fill out the details of the Change Plan and Change Requirements before submission.

For this particular solution, the process is designed in K2 Designer, the web based designer tool. Any additional customization can be made by continuing with the K2 Designer, or by exporting the existing process and opening that in K2 Studio or K2 for Visual Studio.

CHANGE MANAGEMENT DETAILS
The Change Management Approval process, beginning with the RFC submission, will need the following fields:
 Submitted By – Person initiating request
 Priority – Lookup from SmartObject
 Classification – Lookup from SmartObject
 Subject – Free Text
 Description – Brief summary of the change in Free Text
 Justification and Benefits – Free Text
 Planned Change Date – Date
 Estimated Cost – Decimal
 Effects of not implementing change – Free Text
 Item(s) to be changed – Free Text
 Affected Configuration Items – Free Text
 Attachment – File
 Initial Roll Back Plan – File

OTHER DATA SOURCES
RFC Classification
 ID – Identifier
 Classification – Type of change
 Description – Brief description
RFC Priority
 ID – Identifier
 Priority – Type of priority
 Description – Brief description
Comments

As the form is routed, it also allows for the addition of comments, using the reusable Approval Comments SmartObject, built up of the following fields:
 RequestID – Reference to the comment
 ApplicationName – Application using the SmartObject
 ApproverID – FQN of the commenter
 ApproverDisplayName – Display name of the commenter
 ApprovalDate – Date and time of the submitted comment
 Decision – Brief description of the action taken
 Comments – Any additional notes added

INSTALLATION
PREREQUISITES

K2 Requirements
The application requires the following K2 software to be fully installed and configured before deploying the package:

  • K2 Blackpearl 4.6.11 (4.12060.1731.0)
  • K2 SmartForms 4.6.11 (4.12165.1732.0)
  • K2 SmartForms Control Pack 4.6.11 (4.13180.1733.0)

Other Software Requirements

  • Microsoft Silverlight 4.0.50917.0 or higher (required by the web-based K2 Workflow Designer)

Supported Browsers

  •  Internet Explorer 9, 10 or 11
  •  Google Chrome (latest released version)
  •  Mozilla Firefox (latest released version)
  •  Apple Safari (latest released version)

Always refer to the latest Compatibility Matrix for the latest updates for:
 K2 Blackpearl
http://help.k2.com/blackpearl/support-matrix
 K2 SmartForms
 http://help.k2.com/smartforms/support-matrix

K2 ARTIFACTS INSTALLATION
The K2 components are packaged in a deployment package called K2 Application AcceleratorChange Management v1.0.kspx. To deploy these, we will use the K2 Package and Deployment (P&D) application.
1. Start the K2 P&D snap-in by navigating Start All Programs K2 blackpearl K2 Package and Deployment (or double-click the kspx file)

2. Open the solution package file (K2 Application Accelerator – Change Management v1.0.kspx) in P&D and click Next

3. As the environment paths, URLs and existing artifacts might be different, the P&D app will warn you if there are missing references or conflicts. To rectify this, right-click on the reference that has the problematic reference in the Properties pane on the right and select Configure to rectify.

4. Once all conflicts and references have been addressed, click the Next button to deploy the K2 components:

5. You should see that deployment completed successfully. Click Finish to close the dialog:

6. A Wizard form will open, adding the user as an Administrator for the application:

7. There are four roles used in the process:
 Change Analyst
 Change Manager
 Emergency Change Advisory Board
 Change Coordinator
Populate these by using the Workspace link:
a. Open Management Console
b. Navigate to the Roles
c. Select a Role, this will show the current setting and allow editing of its membership. Click Add Role Item to add a user or group
d. Enter the search criteria, click Search and select the relevant user(s) and group(s)
e. Click OK to use the selected items
f. Repeat for all items needed
g. Finally, click the Save button to persist the changes

PREPARING THE ENVIRONMENT
K2 PERMISSIONS
Permissions to the application is controlled via Workspace. Open Management Console and navigate to:
 Your K2 ServerWorkflow ServerProcessesWorkflowChange Management ApprovalProcess Rights

 Search and add the users and groups you need to give access to
 Save the permissions

Detailed instructions on Process Rights can be found in the Help File:
http://help.k2.com/onlinehelp/k2blackpearl/UserGuide/4.6.9/webframe.html#Reference-WS_MCon-Workflow-Processes_ProcessRights.html

ADMINISTRATIVE TASKS FOR THE CHANGE MANAGEMENT APPLICATION
There are some lookup SmartObjects used in the application, all of which are accessible through the Administrative form located at
https://<YourFormsSite>/Runtime/Runtime/Form/K2Sol.ChangeManagement.Form.Admin/.
In order for users to access this administration page (and see the link in the Home page), their name needs to be added in the administrators list. When the app is installed, the user deploying the package will automatically be made an administrator. Additional administrators can be added using the Administration form.
The application is deployed with some sample data which should be customized for actual implementations. Most of the lookup data sources also contain a column called Sort Order, which can be used to order the items when they are loaded in controls. Most of the list controls are sorted alphabetically, but in some cases a specific order is required, like Priority for example. There, the Sort Order column can be used to get an exact order.
There are two main sections in the Administration form.
Application Administrators
Additional administrators can be added here:
Application Lookup Values
Used to administrate the lookup values used in the application:
 RFC Classification
 RFC Priority

USING THE NEW IDEA APPLICATION
Once the artifacts have been deployed and configured, you can start using the application. The application comes with a home page that allows for:
 Application Administration
 Submitting a new Request For Change (RFC)
 A list of previous submissions
 Viewing a user’s Worklist

To submit and process a new RFC:
1. Open the Change Management home page and click the Submit Request for Change link:
2. The form will load, enter the relevant details regarding the RFC. Add the relevant RFC items and click Submit when done:
3. The details will be saved and an approval process will start. The user will be redirected back to the Home page and the Change Management Task Requests I Submitted list will contain a link to the request’s details and the K2 View Flow component, which will be populated when the workflow runs. This can be used to easily follow the progress made by the process:
4. The first task will require a user in the Change Analyst role to approve the RFC. Logging in as one of those users and opening the Change Management Home page’s form, the assigned task will be listed in the Worklist:

Clicking on the item will open it.
Apart from opening tasks via the K2 Worklist app part, all tasks are also accompanied by a mail notification that contains a link to the new task:

5. The Change Analyst will also need to set a Priority for the RFC, which will determine the path if the RFC is not declined. If the RFC is set as “Normal” or “High,” the RFC will be passed to the Change Manager. If the RFC is set to “Emergency,” the RFC will be passed to the Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB):

The Change Analyst will then validate the details and can then Approve, Decline or ask the Requester to Rework the RFC, as shown in the Action dropdown list:

Once a decision has been reached, the Change Analyst can enter some comments and click Submit to complete the task.

6. The RFC will then move to either the Change Manager Authorization or ECAB Authorization based on its Priority. The authorizer (Change Manager or ECAB) will have to either Authorize or Decline the RFC. No additional information will be needed in this step:

7. If authorized, the RFC will be routed to the Change Coordinator. Note that there are two tabs located at the top of the form:

The RFC Details has the RFC Details and Change Plan views. The Additional Info tab will display the Requester Details and Previous Comments Views.

The Change Coordinator will need to fill out the details for the Change Plan, including the more granular details in the Change Requirements view. The Change Coordinator will then proceed with the final Submit action:

8. Once all steps have been completed, the submitter will receive an email notification. The tracking list will also be updated:

CHANGE MANAGEMENT REPORTS
The Change Management application includes a report that provides a high-level overview of all the submitted RFCs. This can be accessed by clicking the View Reports link in the Home page:

This will load a form, displaying the requests submitted for the last 90 days, broken into submissions by month. It also shows a grid of submissions:

Clicking on one of the months will display the requests submitted for that month. Clicking further into these allows the user to see even more details, like the activities as well as the users that participated on the requests:

Standard View permissions still apply, so ensure that the relevant users have sufficient permissions on Workspace before rolling out the reports. See the K2 Permissions section for details.

 

NCE301 – A puma at large

L01-01 begin 12’48”
§ Lesson 1 A puma at large 逃遁的美洲狮
【New words and expressions】生词和短语
◆puma n. 美洲狮
◆spot v. 看出,发现
◆evidence n. 证据
◆accumulate v. 积累,积聚
◆oblige v. 使…感到必须
◆hunt n. 追猎;寻找
◆blackberry n. 黑莓
◆human being 人类
◆corner v. 使走投无路,使陷入困境
◆trail n. 一串,一系列
◆print n. 印痕
◆cling (clung, clung ) v. 粘
◆convince v.使…信服
◆somehow adv. 不知怎么搞地,不知什么原因
◆disturb v. 令人不安
学习词汇时仅知道汉语语义是不够的,要把单词放在语句中体会其应用
学习关键句型结构时则要把它放在段落结构或文章里
★spot v. 看出,发现
pick out / see / recognize / catch sight of
eg: A tall man is easy to spot in the crowd.
He has good eye for spotting mistakes.
他有敏锐的识别错误的能力。
spot(做动词时候) = see:强调结果、辨别出、看见、识别、发现。
find 强调发现的结果。
find out 查出事实真相。
discover 做出重大发现
notice 注意到
observe 观察
watch 观察活动中的人或画面
spot n. 斑点
eg: There is a white spot on the shirt.
on the spot
1,立刻,马上(at once, immediately )
Anyone breaking the rules will be asked
to leave on the spot.
2,at the place of the action 在现场
Wherever she is needed , she is quickly
on the spot.
★evidence [u]n. 证据
When the police arrived, he had already destroyed the evidence.
evidence=proof
in evidence:显而易见的.
He was in evidence at the party.
evidently adv.
evident adj.
★accumulate vt,vi. 积累,积聚
accumulate 强调积累的过程
As the evidence accumulates, experts from
the zoo felt obliged to investigate.
gather vt. 聚集,把某人召集在某处
collect 收集,采集
assemble 集合,集会, vt. 装配
hoard 大量地贮存
The squirrel hoards up nuts for the cold
winter.
hoard up= store up
amass 积聚(主要用于诗歌和文学作品)
★oblige v. 使…感到必须
feel obliged to do sth.感觉有必要做某事
be obliged to do sth 被迫做某事
★hunt n. 追猎;寻找
L01-01 end 12’48”
L01-02 begin 13’15”
run after 强调追赶、追求.
seek 追寻(梦想,理想) = pursue
chase 追赶.
hunt for
search 搜寻某处为了寻找到某人或某物
★corner v. 使走投无路,使陷入困境
corner n. 角落
at the corner of the street
in the corner of the room
on the corner of the desk
be cornered ………被逼得走投无路
常用于被动语态:
The thief was cornered at last.
The problem cornered me. 这个问题把我难倒了。
★trail n. 一串,一系列
trail==follow vt. 跟踪
eg: The police trailed the criminal to the place where he was hiding.
★cling (clung, clung ) v. 粘
eg: She is always clinging to her mother.
He clung to the hope that he would succeed.(抱有,怀有)
stick 粘住stick to 坚持sticky adj. 粘的
★convince vt. 使…信服
convince sb. of sth 使sb 相信sth
和宾语从句that 搭配使用
没有宾语的情况下要采用主系表结构: be convinced
sb be convicned sb 相信
★somehow adv. 不知怎么搞地,不知什么原因
by some means, in some way, for some reason unknown
somewhat ==a little
★disturb v. 令人不安
disturbing adj. 令人不安的disturbed感到不安的
surprising 令人吃惊的surprised感到吃惊的
exciting 令人激动的excited感到激动的

【Text】
§ Lesson 1 A puma at large 逃遁的美洲狮

listen to the tape then answer the question below.
Where must the puma have come from?

  1. Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.
  2. When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously.
  3. However, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar.
  4. The hunt for the puma began in a small village where a woman picking blackberries saw ‘a large cat’ only five yards away from her.
  5. It immediately ran away when she saw it, and experts confirmed that a puma will not attack a human being unless it is cornered.
  6. The search proved difficult, for the puma was often observed at one place in the
    morning and at another place twenty miles away in the evening. Wherever it went, it left behind it a trail of dead deer and small animals like rabbits.
  7. Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes.
  8. Several people complained of ‘cat-like noises’ at night and a businessman on a fishing trip saw the puma up a tree.
  9. The experts were now fully convinced that the animal was a puma, but where had it come from?
  10. As no pumas had been reported missing from any zoo in the country, this one must have been in the possession of a private collector and somehow managed to escape.
  11. The hunt went on for several weeks, but the puma was not caught.
  12. It is disturbing to think that a dangerous wild animal is still at large in the quiet countryside..

【课文讲解】
at large
1:逃遁的,没有被控制的。
2:详细的(in detail)
3:总体来讲(as a whole)
在英文的表达方式中,首先呈现给读者的是结果。写议论文的时候要注意把握观点
eg: Pandas are large cat-like animals which are found in Asia.
life-like 栩栩如生的
一般来讲定语从句和同位语从句紧随在被修饰名词后面,但为了保持句子平衡,也可以把谓语动词放到从句之前。定语从句只是对于被修饰词的补充说明、修饰。
同位语从句则是讲述被修饰名词的内容定语从句的引导词:
指人: 主语who; 宾语who/whom; 定语whose
表达事物:that(也可指人)/ which
时间状语:when; 地点状语:where; 原因状语:
why
同位语从句:名词做主语、宾语时,关系词用that 而
不是which
时间when; 地点where
eg: An idea came to her that she might do
the experiment in another way.
I have no idea what has happened to him.
定语从句中没有what 这个关系词,但它可以引导同位语从句
(An idea)…come to sb.某人突然想到了……
take sth. seriously==deal with sth. seriously
认真(严肃)对待某事
take sth. lightly: 草率对待某事
as 随着
过去分词做定语
声称曾经作过某事: claim to have done sth
I still remember the school where I studied English.

confirm: be sure, be certain
search=hunt
把某物留在后面:leave behind
Wherever he went, the wound soldier left
behind him a trail of blood.伤员所到之处,都留下道道血迹。
英文的表达方式重点在于突出客观事实,而中文则善于运用动作的执行者
complain of / about :抱怨
on + 名词:强调动作正在进行
on the rise:在上升
on the increase: 在增加
on the watch: 在观看
on the match:在比赛中
on the fishing trip:在钓鱼的途中
on holiday: 在度假
fully: completely, entirely
in the possession of sb==in sb’s possession
归某人所有
in possession of sth. 拥有某物
take possession of 拥有
eg: The beautiful car is in my possession / in the possession of me.
I am in possession of the beautiful car.
The person in possession of the big house is excited.
It is disturbing to think that 一想到………就心里不安
eg: It is disturbing to think that I felt my examination.
总结:
at large
take sth. seriously
cling to
leave behind
complain of
in the possession of / in possession of
feel obliged to investigate
a woman picking blackberries
a businessman on a fishing trip
go on several weeks
in the quiet countryside

【Exercises】
A. Complete these sentences by adding a suitable word to the end of each one:
1 What are you looking __?
2 Where is your mother going __?
3 Whom has the letter been sent __?
4 This is the house I was born __?
5 What does your decision depend __?
key: 1 at / for 2 to 3 to 4 in 5 on
B. Write these sentences again changing the position of the words in italics. Where possible, omit the words whom or which.
1 He is the man about whom we have heard so much.
2 The shelf on which you put those books has collapsed.
3 From whom did you receive a letter?
4 This is the road by which we came.
5 Where is the pencil with which you were playing?
key:
1 He is the man we have heard so much.
2 The shelf you put those books has collapsed.
3 Whom did you receive a letter from?
4 This is the road we came by.
5 Where is the pencil you were playing?
注意:3 whom 不能省略
定语从句中which 以及指代人的做宾语的whom, 在非正式用法当中可以省略。省略时,介词不能前置到关系代词whom,which 前,只能用于非固定的动词短语后面。
以look 为例
look at: 注视
look for: 寻找介词不能前置
live in: 居住介词可以前置
eg: This is the old house in which he lived. / This is the old house he lived in

【Multiple choice questions】
1. Experts eventually decided to investigate .
a. because they did not believe that pumas existed in England.
b. because they wanted a puma for the London Zoo.
c. when a woman saw a puma in a small village.
d. because people’s descriptions of the puma had a lot in common.
要求陈述原因:
1. D
in common-similar
2. What particular piece of evidence persuaded the experts that a puma had been
seen in the village?
a. The puma had not attacked the woman.
b. The woman had described the animal she had seen as ‘a large cat’.
c. A puma had come very close to a human being.
d. The puma had behaved like a cat.
A 只是一个具体的特定的事例,阅读理解题的时候要把握中心大意
B large cat 关键性用词
2. B
Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.
3. What was the problem the experts were unable to solve?
a. How the puma had managed to cover such great distances within a day.
b. How the puma had escaped from a zoo.
c. Whom the puma had belonged to.
d. How the puma had climbed a tree.
A 文章中未提到
3. C
做理解题时要紧扣主题,紧扣中心大意。文章最后一句话总结了大意:
It is disturbing to think that a dangerous wild animal is still at large in the quiet
countryside.
句型结构题和词汇题是关键
4. The accumulating evidence made the experts the animal was a puma. (lines
4-6)
a. to think b. thinking c. think d. thought
make—-make sb. do, be made to do
主动语态中不定式to 的符号应该省略
被动语态中不定式to 的符号必须补充完整
5 People said the puma.(lines 5-6)
a. to have seen b. to see c. they saw
d. they had seen
把say改成claim—People claimed to have seen the puma.
5. D—清楚的道明了动作发生的先后关系
6 , ___ it immediately ran away. (lines 8-9)
a. Observing her b. On being observed c. Having been observed d. On her being
observed
与原句中的when意思要一致,when引导的时间状语从句表示一结构形式和as soon as 相一致的如果用主动: On observing her, it immediately ran away.
On seeing me, he waved to me.
6.B
7 Pumas never attack a human being except ____ cornered.(lines 9)
a. they are b. being c. that they are d. when they are
原句中  unless—-if…not / except on the condition that
when=if
except (vt. vi. prep. conj.)可以和名词/名词性从句进行搭配,也可以是when / if 引导的从句形式。
… experts confirmed that a puma will not attack a human being unless it is cornered …
7. D
8 The experts were now fully convinced that the animal ____ a puma. (lines 13-14)
a. must be b. should have been c. can only be d. could only have been
must be 只是对客观现实的推测,时态不一致
8. D
情态动词表达推测的语意概念时,对于过去事实推测一定要用于情态动词have以及过去分词形式进行搭配。
9 The woman saw ‘a large cat’ ____ five yards away from her.(lines 7-8)
a. at least b. four or c. no more than d. within
no more than = only
within = not more than
9. C
10 A puma will not attack a human being unless it feels itself to be ____ .(line 9)
a. in a corner b. in a trap c. at an angle d. under cover
in a corner 表示处于困境、尴尬的境地
in a trap 表示落于陷阱中
at an angle 表示弯曲的、不直的

Continue reading NCE301 – A puma at large

翻译

A Brief introduction to Translation

I. Definition 翻译的定义
Translation, speaking, implies rendering from one language into another of something written or spoken. It is, essentially the faithful representation, in one language of what is written or spoken in another. It is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL-the source language) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL-target language).

II. Qualifications of a translator 翻译者必备的素质

1) A translator must be well acquainted with the source language.
We are inclined to feel too confident of our comprehension when we are reading foreign literary works. We think we know it from A to Z, yet, when we start translating it we find it difficult and there are many points misunderstood. We are playing the fool with ourselves because of careless reading, Therefore, translation serves as the best possible approach to the study of foreign languages.

2) A translator must be well acquainted with the target language.
Let’s take Yan Fu for instance: When Yan Fu, a famous translator in the Qing Dynasty, was translating “Evolution and Ethics and other Essays”, the title turned out to be the crux(症结)that caused him to cudgel his brains (绞尽脑汁)day and night and look pale for it. His wife worried very much representation of the title for quite time and eventually had it translated into《天演论》which has since deserved high praise up till now.

3) A translator must be armed with necessary professional knowledge.

4) A translator must be armed with the ability to live his part.
As famous play writer Maryann pointed out: “a translator must enter into the spirit of character (regard himself as one that plays a role in a play). That is to say, he seems

1. present at the very spot.(亲临其境)
2. involved in the very occurrence.(亲历其事)
3. witnessing the very parties concerned.(亲睹其人)
4. interating the very utterances.(亲道其法)
5. experiencing the very joy and annoy.(亲尝其甘,亲领其苦)
6. sharing the very weal and woe.(亲享其福,亲受其哀)
7. partaking of the glee and grief.(亲得其乐,亲感其悲)

5) A translator must be armed with the excellent ability of expressiveness and vivid imagination.
“Toiling yourself and endure hardship for obtaining a well-chosen word” just as the famous poet Du Fu did “Never give up until an amazing poetic masterpiece is gained”. (“为求一字稳,耐得五更寒”,象诗圣杜甫那样具有“语不惊人死不休”得精神与毅力)

III. Criteria of Translation 翻译的标准

Speaking of criteria of translation, as early as in the Tang Dynasty, the learned Monk Xuan Zhuang designed criteria of translation with emphasis placed on accuracy and general knowledge. In the Qing Dynasty, Yan Fu established a three character standard in translation:“信” faithfulness,“达”expressiveness and “雅”elegance, which are similar to “triness” by Herbert Rotheinstein(赫伯特·罗森斯坦)。Faithfulness, expressiveness and gracefulness which are considered the golden rule(金科玉律)in the field of translation.

After the May 4 th Movement, Lu Xun proposed: faithfulness“信”and smoothness“顺”as the criteria of translation. Shortly after the birth of New China, quite a lot of translators put forward various criteria, such as“忠实”、“通顺”、“准确”、流畅,重神韵而不是行貌(沈雁冰),“神似”与“形似”(许渊冲)and so on …

Still, some people made diverse interpretations to Yan Fu’s three-character criteria of translation as: “信”— being faithful “达”— being explicit “雅”— elegant in words
Which is different from Yan’s own definition: “信”— 达旨(将原文说明) “达”— 前后引衬,以显其意
“雅”— 尔雅(用汉以前字法,句法)
IV. Methods of Translation 翻译的方法
In translation from English into Chinese, the principal methods used are: 1. Literal translation (metaphase) 2. Literal translation (paraphrase)
3. Transliteration (translation according to pronunciation)
The last one, however, is scarcely used unless it is absolutely necessary. Transliteration is mainly used in translating proper nouns, such as names of persons, places, scientific terms and etc. Whether a translation will be faithful to be the original in all the aspects depends on the possibility of finding the closest, the most natural equivalence(为原文在文体上找到最切近、最自然的对等语)depends on to a great extent a good command of the transformation of the key sentence and the choice of surface structure by a translator (在很大程度上取决于译者能否准确地掌握核心句的转化以及对表层形式的选择).

heartbreaking 令人心碎的
eye-popping 使人膛目的
a belt-tightening 勒紧裤带的政策
a wait-and-see attitude 等着瞧的态度
crack the case 破案
thirst to learn 渴望学习
令人心碎的 使人膛目的 勒紧裤带的政策 等着瞧的态度 破案 渴望学习
These examples are comparatively ideal sentence with great affinity, which can be translated by way of metaphase.
eat (swallow) the leek lie on one’s back kiss-me (吃芹菜)→ 忍受耻辱 (躺在背上)→ 仰卧 (吻我)(野生)→ 三色紫罗兰
kiss-me-quick see with half an eye have a cigar forget-me-not (快来吻我吧)→ 额发 (睁一只眼,闭一只眼)→ 一望便知 (请抽烟!)→ 你好! (不要忘记我)→ 勿忘我 V. PRACTICE: 1. He bent solely upon profit. A. Surface:他只屈身于利润之前。 B. Shallow:只有利润才使他低头。 C. Deep:他惟利是图。 2. We are here today and gone tomorrow. A. Surface:我今天在这里,明天就到别处了。 B. Shallow:今日在世,明日辞世(死去)。 C. Deep:人生朝露。 3. John is tall like I am the queen of Sheba. A. Surface:约翰高得像是示巴皇后。 B. Shallow:约翰高的话,我就是示巴皇后。 C. Deep:要说约翰个头高,没那回事。 Translation C, however, not only breakes the crust of the original, but gains an insight into the deep structure through the surface structure. That’s to say when essence(内容)is in contradiction with form(形式)in translation and to harmonize the two, essence should be stressed.(在神与形矛盾而又无法同一时,应重神似,有时不得不牺牲形式) 4. Their accent couldn’t fool a native speaker. 当地人一听口音,就知道他们是外地人。 5. Truth lies at the bottom of the decanter(酒瓶). 酒后露真言。 6. Darkness released him from his last restraints. 一到天黑,他就原形毕露。 7. How much did you suffer? “Plenty,” the old man said. —The Old Man and Sea “你吃了多少苦头?” “一言难尽。 ”老头说。 —《老人与海》 8. How many winter days have I seen him, standing blue-nosed in the snow and east wind! 在许多个冬日我都看见他,鼻子冻得发紫,站在飞雪和寒风中。
9. The thought that Huck might have failed was intolerable, agonizing.
一想到哈克可能失败了,
(我们)就难以忍受,痛苦不堪。 VI. The process of Translation 翻译的步骤 A formal translation must be completed through five steps: 1. Preparation 2. analysis & understanding of the original 3. expression in target language 准备 分析与吃透原文 表达
4. proofreading 5. finalization 校正 定稿
● Preparation implies that we need to lay our hands on the reference materials which are relevant to the works.
● Comprehension is the key step of a translation; therefore, a translator must read the original time and again.
1) Glancing (skimming) over the original text you are going to translate.
2) Consulting your dictionary to make sure the exact meaning and implication of the new words found in original text through the first reading and the contextual relationship.
3) The third reading of the original should be emphasized on the understanding of the author’s ideological content, artistic quality, writing technique and style.
*linguistic analysis in combination with logical analysis of the original.
*The process of comprehension is that of unity between thinking in source language and that in target language *Penetration into the artistic conception of the original through the linguistic form and crust.
● Expression implies the change of the original from one language into another. This depends on how well you digest the original and how good your accomplishment of the target language are.
Every Chinese character should be well-chosen, every sentence well-organized and every paragraph carefully polished.
精心选词,苦心炼句,细心润色每个段落
The English speaking people are proud of the compactness(严谨)of their language, while we Chinese are proud of the conciseness(简洁)of our mother tongue.
English syntax(句法)emphasizes on hypotaxis “形合” which means that clauses, sentences, even parts of phrases are connected by connectives(连接词). Thus, English sentence structure is well-knit.
Unlike English, Chinese language is stressed on parataxis(意合)which means that sentences and the various parts of them are joined by meaning instead of connectives.
VII. Contextual Relationship
The following linguistic terms are of some importance in the understanding of this aspect.
1. Syntactic marking: The marked worked words that determine the specific meaning of a word.
2. Semotactic marking: The collocation and the relationship of the juxtaposed words(紧邻相连的词)governs the specific meaning a word.
3. Referential clusters: All those words that mean a great help to understanding and judging the specific meaning of a word.
Example:
● If when I tell you, dearest dear, that your agony is over, and that I have come here to take you from it, and that we go to England to be at peace and at rest, I cause you to think of your useful life laid waste, and of our native France so wicked to you, weep for it, weep for it!
亲爱的宝贝儿,我要告诉你,你的痛苦已经结束,我来此把你带出海,同往英格兰共享人间 清平,这会(如果这样做)使你想起你那虚度的年华,想起你的故土法兰西对你如此不公。 (倘若果真如此),(那么)亲爱的,你就哭吧,尽情的哭吧!
With the help“倘若果真如此”,“那么”,“如果这样做,……那么”,the logical relationship of the context is clearly
shown in the translation.

*But the actual achievement of this campaign, which is still misunderstood, should never be underestimated. It brought about the first defeat of a German army in the Second World War.
这一战役的实际成果,至尽仍为被人们准确理解,但决不应低估,因为在这场战役中,德国军队遭到了第二次世界大战开始以来的首次失败。
Polysemy(歧义)inEnglish-ChineseTranslation
(英汉翻译中的歧义)
The difference shown in words of the two languages lies in the following aspects: English words are characteristic of a great vacillation(游移性)and flexibility(灵活性与可塑性);the meaning of a word may range widely and depends much on the contextual relationship as is said “Words do not have meaning, people have meaning for words(词本无义,义随人生)”.
Consequently, we sometimes find it difficult to make appropriate adaptations from English into Chinese words and Yan Fu put it “A new term established, ten days or a month spent.”
Let’s start with the word “identity”.
The word “identity” is elucidated(阐明)in dictionary as follows: ● sameness of essential or generic character in different instance;
● sameness in all that constitutes the objective reality of a thing; oneness; ● thecondition of being the same with something described or asserted;
However, in the modem English, the meaning of “identity” varies with the changing contexts.
1. He also had been demanding that all Irishmen living in Britain be required to carry identity cards. 当时,他还一直在要求所有居住在不列颠的爱尔兰人必须携带身份证。
2. Their sexual identity, like that of all women competitors, had been officially confined by the Olympic “femininity control clinic.”
她们的性别鉴定,像所有的女运动员的性别鉴定一样,已由奥林匹克“女性医务监察部”正式核实。
3. Lee has again and again stressed the need for his tiny nation to develop its own Singaporean — as opposed to Chinese — identity.
李光耀再三强调他的这个小小的国家有必要发展新加坡人自己的特点,以有别于中国人。
4. The Europe Communists are in the middle of an identity crisis and are taking up the mask of a certain reformism 欧洲共产党人现处在党性转变的十字路口,她们现在正戴上某种改良主义的面具。 5. In Poland, loyalty to the church became the only means of defending national identity. 在波兰,效忠教会成为保卫民族意识的唯一手段。
6. Hongkong thus enjoy the identity, the wealth and the trapping of a city-state-without a state’s responsibility for its long-range destiny.
这样,香港就具备了一个城市国家的身份、财富和外貌,但却不必对自己的长远命运负一个国家应负的责任。
7. A young nation struggling to establish its identity produced leaders, such as Jefferson and Jackson, dedicated to a democratic process which, however, excluded Indians and blacks. 年轻的美国在奋力确定国家体制之际,产生了诸如杰弗逊和杰克逊那样的领袖人物,他们致力于民主制度的建立,却排斥印度人和黑人。
8. But investigators say they have no clues to the whereabouts of the alleged accomplices and are not even certain of their identities.
然而,负责调查的官员说,他们还未获得任何有关这些所谓同谋下落的线索,他们甚至还不知道这些人姓甚名谁。
9. Since I had said good-bye to him on Thursday, we had gone through greater emotions than any mystery story could provide. The unusual thing about this thriller was that the villain changed his identity. 自从星期四向他告别之后,我们经历了比任何惊险小说所描写的都更为激动人心的场面,这种经历的异乎寻常

之处就是反派角色变化了本来面目。
10. But politics would be his life from then on. In politics, and politics alone, he would find his identity. 从那时起,政治成为他的生命,他打算在政治生涯中,也只打算在政治生涯中,确立其名声。
Note the different meanings “story” shares in the different contexts:
1. This war is becomingthe most important story of his generation.(最重要的事件) 2. It is quiteanother story now.(另一回事)
3. Last December, the Post first reported that probes were being made in each of those cities, but officials refused toconfirm the story.(证实这件事)
4. Some reporters who were not included in the sessionbroke the story. 5. He’ll be very happy if that storyholds up.
6. Thestory about him became smaller and by and by faded out from the American television. 7. The Rita Hay worth story is one of the saddest. 8. A young man came to Scott’s office with a story. 9. Tell me the story of what happened to you.
10. Thestory of the opera was printed in the program.
Word Discrimination & Translation

Generally speaking, almost all of English words share meanings in three aspects. 1. The structural meaning 结构意义 2. The referential meaning 指示意义 3. The situational meaning 语境意义
Since an English word may share a lot of meaning such as extended meaning(引申意义), intentional meaning(内含意义), connotative meaning(内涵意义)and denotative meaning(外延意义), the most reliable way is to distinguish by means of situational meaning.
Please weigh the various meaning of “green” collocated with different words.
a green eye
a green wound
a green winter
green corn
green corp
green feed
green-fingered
green hand
green tea
green with envy
green thumb
green as grass
in the green wood (tree)
嫉妒的 未愈合的伤口 温暖的冬天 嫩玉米穗,甜玉米 青饲料作物 青绿饲料 具有高超种植花木蔬菜技能的 生手 绿茶 十分嫉妒 园艺技能 幼稚,无经验 处于佳境
Many English words possess synonyms which express more or less the same meaning. For example: wife—woman, better half, helpmate, helpmeet, grey mare and squaw.
The same is true with Chinese
妻子,夫人,太太,老婆,老伴,屋里人,媳妇,那口子,内人,内子,内助,内当家,内掌柜的,婆姨,娘子,浑家,娇气,仁妻,良人,玉雪,敞房,荆房,荆布,拙荆等等。

Similarly, there are a lot of synonyms to “laugh” as follows:
smile
grin
chuckle
giggle
chortle
laugh/titter
snigger
guffaw
cackle
roar
微笑 咧嘴而笑,露齿笑 暗笑,轻声笑 痴笑,吃吃地笑 哈哈大笑 傻笑,嗤嗤地笑 嬉皮笑脸地笑 哄笑,放声大笑 尖声笑,咯咯地笑狂笑 All these words share the meaning of “laugh”, but they are different from one another in manner, volume, degree, mood, connotation, passion, and appeal(方式,音量,程度,心情,涵义,感情,以及感染力).
*To have one’s translation faithful to the original in accuracy, one must be well acquainted with the shades of difference of synonyms.
Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the shades of difference of the underlined words.
1. The child cried himself to sleep. 那孩子哭着哭着就睡着了。 2. She sobbed herself to sleep. 她抽抽咽咽地睡着了。
3. The girls wept with joy after their volleyball team won. 女排获胜后,姑娘们流下了高兴的热泪。
4. Her eyes are always weeping for the loss of her beauty. 因为美貌不在,她的眼里总是黯然神伤。 5. She wept copiously over the loss of her lover. 心上人离她而去,她悲痛欲绝。
6. A child your age shouldn’t sit about blubbering over a lost toy.
像你这么大(岁数)的小孩,不应该因为丢了玩具,就坐在地上哭哭啼啼。 7. There she collects the force of female lungs, sighs, sobs and passions. 她极尽女性之能事,长吁短叹,泣不成声,悲愤不已。
8. The films ends with the heroine sobbing desperately as her lover walks away resolutely. 影片结尾,当她的心上人义无返顾地远去时,女主人公悲痛欲绝,伤心而泣。
9. The headmaster said to her, “If you have something to say, have it out clearly. It’s no use weeping and wailing endlessly.” 校长对她说:“你要是有什么,明明白白地说出来吧。你这样无休止地哭哭啼啼有什么用呢?” 10. The wind was wailing in the woods. 风在树林中呼啸。
Distinguish the shades of meaning of the underlined words or phrases and translate the sentences into proper Chinese.
1. Come to the theater with me and laugh off your worries. 我们一起去剧院,来它个一笑解千愁。
2. At this moment another smile of deep meaning passed between her and her.

此时此刻两人会意地一笑。
3. Spring awakened, all nature smiled. 春回大地,万物复苏。
4. The wasters of a brook are limpid and laughing in the summer’s sun. 夏日的阳光下,小溪清清,流水淙淙。
5. He chuckled at himself for having worn his wife’s shirt. 看到自己错穿了妻子的衬衫,他不禁哑然失笑。
6. The girls couldn’t stop giggling when the boy answered that Cao Cao was an outstanding tennis player. 当这个男孩回答曹操是个杰出的网球运动员时,姑娘们吃吃地笑个不停。 7. Why do teenage girls giggle so much? 为什么十几岁的女孩那么喜欢傻笑?
8. Father used to chortle over such funny jokes. 父亲以前一听到这样的笑话,总会哈哈大笑。
9. We whisper, and hint, and chuckle, and grin at a brother’s shame.
(一旦)看到那个兄弟出了洋相,我们大家或者是窃窃私语,要不就是指指点点;或者暗自发笑:要不就是笑得合不拢嘴。
10. Since the famous portrait, the Mona Lisa was painted people have been fascinated by the mysterious smile on the face and by the strange background of fantastic rocks.
自从著名的《蒙娜丽莎》问世以来,人们就对她脸上神秘的微笑,奇形怪状的岩石所构 成的非同寻常的背景而心驰神往。
Choice of Words
English words are characteristic of polysemy and polysemous words often share more than one part of ten share more than one part of speech, which takes time to determine the fixed meaning and its given part of speech in the certain context, and even more time to makes final decision of the Chinese equivalence to the original word. After the through analysis of the original syntax and the general idea of the original text, choice of words becomes the determining factor to a good translation.
The word “and” seems easy enough, the actual practice, however, is very different from what as one might imagine.
1. War and Peace 战争与和平
2. eat and drink 吃吃喝喝
3. to work arduously and skillfully 苦干加巧干
4. The girls came over talking and laughing 姑娘们有说有笑(又说又笑)地走过来。 5. She is the Party Secretary and manager as well. 她是党委书记兼经理。
6. It was not easy to carry such a heavy load, and during the dog days. 扛这么重的东西很不容易,更何况这么热的天呢。 7. The earth rotates and it revolves. 地球一面自转,一面公转。
8. The sun came out and the grass dried. 日出草干
9. Reading the text many times and you will be able to recite it. 课文多读几遍,你就会背了
10. He came here by bike and I walked here.

他是骑车来的,而我是步行来的。
11. He did it, and did it well. 他做了,而且做得不错。
12. They talked and talked until small hours. 他们谈啊谈啊,一直谈到次日凌晨。 13. many and many a time. 三番五次,许多次。 14. They walked two and two. 他们成双成对走过。
15. There are men and men (booksand books). 各式各样的人(书)
To have every word well expressed in Chinese, one must acquaint himself with rhetoric, especially the passive rhetoric whose essential work is to have words well-chosen which is just in agreement with the key link of expression in translation. Whether a word is well-chosen affects greatly the accuracy of expression. For example:
good will
good wife
good mother
good gold
good teacher
good friend
good neighbor
good heart
good sense
good year
good match
good deeds
good points
good husband
good look
善意 贤妻 慈母 真金 良师 好友 高邻 好心 褒义 丰年 劲敌,匹敌 善举,善事 优点,长处 尽职的丈夫 美貌
The following is designed to practice your translation technique on the choice of words. Work carefully, try to vary your diction in the Chinese version.
Although schoolmistresses letters are to be trusted no more nor less than churchyard epitaphs, yet as it sometimes happens that a person departs this life, who is really deserving of all the praises the stone-cutter carves over his bones; who is a good Christian, a good parent, child, wife or husband; who actually does leave a disconsolate family to mourn his less; so academies of the male and female sex it occurs every now and then, that then pupil is fully worthy of the praises bestowed by the disinterested instructor.
一般说来,校长的信和墓志铭一样靠不住,不过偶然也有几个死去的人当得起石匠们在他们朽骨上的好话,的确是虔诚的教徒,慈爱的母亲,孝顺的儿女,尽职的丈夫,贤良的妻子,他们的家人也的确哀思绵绵地追悼他。同样,不论在男生还是女生校园,偶然也有一两个学生当得起老师毫无私心的称赞。
Translation should turn out to be faithful the original but not rigid, flexible but not excessive. 翻译应该是忠实而不呆板,灵活而不过分。
A good translation, generally speaking, is a bit longer than the original (it does not necessarily mean that good translation must be longer than the original) primarily because translation must faithfully turn the obvious form of the original

language into target language, and at the same time, must convey what implied in the original context, especially that closely connected with the background of the original culture and history in the target language.
The difficulties to readers of translation lie in what’s implied in the original, translator should make some adaptations in the light of specific conditions to enable readers to understand more easily.
The words added in translation must be indispensable (absolutely necessary) either syntactically or semantically.
I. Words supplied for syntactic construction
II. Words supplied for semantic completion
1.人民犯了法,也要受处罚,也要坐班房,也有死刑。
When anyone among the people breaks the law, he too should be punished, imprisoned or even sentenced to death.
2.其实地上本来没有路,走的人多了,也便成了路。
For actually the earth had no roads to begin with, but when many men pass one way, a road is made.
3. You got a prejudice all right—against a race that’s black. That’s why I called you white racist that night. But when you deal with a black person, I don’t feel any bad vices.
你这个人确有偏见。你(结构性增补)对整个(语义性增补)黑人种族抱有偏见(结构 性增补)那天晚上,我说骂你是个白人种族主义者,道理就在这儿。但是,当你跟一个具体的(语义性增补)黑人打交道时,我倒(修辞性增补;语气补足词)觉得你没有什么恶意。
4. The V sign itself is a challenge, for the famous Churchillian invention that used to mean Allied Victory is no longer valid. Instead of having to do with War, V today is made to mean peace.
V 形手势(语义性增补)本身就是一种挑战。因为丘吉尔的这个著名的发明,当年(语义性增补)曾作为盟国胜利的标志。这层意思现已不复存在,今天(修辞性重复)V 形手 势语是被用来表示和平。
5. My audiences vary from tens to thousands. I expected opposition but got hardly any. 我的听众从几十人到几千人不等(修饰性增补),我希望有持有异议的人站起来跟我辩论(语义性增补),但几乎没有遇到过(结构性增补) 。
6. But, if this world is not merely a bad joke, life a vulgar flare amid the cool radiance of the stars, and existence an empty laugh braying across the mysteries; if there intimations of something behind and behind are not evil humor born of madden us; if, in a word, beauty means something, yet we must not seek to interpret the meaning.
—— From New Concept English 《新概念英语》 (Book 4) lesson 29
但是,即使这个世界不仅仅是个拙劣的玩笑,生命不仅仅是(结构性重复)星体交织的寒光中的一点平庸的火花。人生也不仅仅是(结构性重复)喧噪于神秘之乡的空虚的一笑;即使这一切发自那既不渴望也不可及的某种事物的启示,不是由于内在的失调而迸发的邪恶之念,也不是(结构性重复)魔鬼用来嘲弄和激怒我们的奇谈怪论。一句话,倘若美具有某 种意义,我们还是不要试图去了解它的意义为好。(修辞性增补:语气补足词,落在句尾,使句子更完整)。
7. What is feared as failure in American society, is, above all, aloneness, And aloneness is terrifying because it means that there is no one, no group, no approved cause to submit to.
在美国社会中作为失败而为人们所(语气及结构上的增补)恐惧的,莫过于孤独了。而孤独之所以可怕,就因为没有一个可服从的人,没有一个可服从的群体,没有一个可服从的可公认的事业(“可服从的”重复了三次,皆因结构上的需要)。

8. Long, anxious days passed, during which I hope that Dave would see that white was not always white nor black always totally black. Time was running out; his decision could not be indefinitely postponed.
我过着漫长,焦急的日子,一直(语义增补词)希望戴夫能明白世事(语义结构上的需要)并非处处都是皂白分明。时光流逝,他不能无限期地拖下去,迟迟不作决定(结构性增补)。
III. Supply overlapping words or numerals to express the plural form of nouns.
Unlike the English language which has the change of plural form of nouns as well as that of verb tenses, the Chinese language has no change of plural form. It is usually expressed by supplying overlapping words or numerals, such as“朵朵鲜花”,“百花齐放”,“阵阵寒风”,“徐徐凉风”,“微风习习”,“们”,“诸位”,“大家”,“大伙”。
songs flowers ripples cheers a chilly wind a murmuring stream (book) deadly still galloping horses a golden opportunity throughout ages 阵阵歌声 鲜花朵朵 层层涟漪 阵阵喝彩 凉风习习 淙淙流水 万籁俱寂 万马奔腾 天赐良机 千秋万代
Even Homer sometimes nods. Flowers of all sorts are blooming in a riot of color. The audience left one after another. In spring, a gentle wind rippled the tranquil lake. 智者千里,必有一失。 百花争艳,万紫千红。 听众鱼贯而出。 风乍起,吹皱一池春水。
Relative & Connectives (关系词与连接词的翻译)

Relatives include relative pronouns and relative adverbs, such as who, whom, whose, that, which, what, when, where, why and how used to connect main clause and subordinate clauses. White connectives include coordinate and subordinate conjunctions, such as and, or, but, yet, so, however, as well as, (n)either … (n)or …, when, while, as, since, until, so … that, unless, lest and so on.
1. All was cleared up some time later when news came from a distant place that an earthquake was felt the very day the little copper ball fell.
过了一些时候,从远方传来了消息:在小球坠落的当天,确实发生了地震。这一切终于得到了澄清。
2. When I try to understand what it is that prevent so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect, it seems to me that there are two causes, of which one goes much deeper than the other.
为什么如此众多的美国人不能如想象中那样幸福呢?我认为原因有二,而两个原因之间又有深浅之分。 3. It has been a fine, golden autumn, a lovely farewell to those who would lose their youth, and some of them their lives, before the leaves turned again in a peacetime fall.
那是个天气晴朗、黄金可爱的秋天,美好的秋色为那些青年们送别。待到战后和平时期,黄叶纷飞的秋天再度来临时,当日的青年已经失去了青春,有的已丧失了生命。
4. It is flattering to believe that they are too profound to be expressed so clearly that all who run may read, and very naturally it does not occur to such writers that the fault is with their own minds which have not the faculty of precise

reflection.
认为自己的思想深奥,不可能表达得很清楚并让任何人都能理解,这是一种虚荣的念头。这样的作家当然不会想到,问题还是出在自己脑子缺乏精确思考的能力。 5. It was what sentimentalists,who deal in very big words,call a yearning after the ideal,and simply means that woman are not satisfied until they have husbands and children on whom they may center affections, which are spent elsewhere, as it were, in small change. (W. Thackeray: Vanity Fair)
一般情感主义者喜欢用大字眼,称之为对于理想爱情的渴望。换言之,他们认为女人的情感平时只能零星发泄,必须有了丈夫和孩子,情感收聚起来有了归宿,自己才能得到满足。
英汉互译中的对等结构
一.直译
作乐
笑柄
梦乡
门外汉
皮包骨
祸不单行
一眼看穿
看穿把戏
混水摸鱼
半途而废 s
保住面子
铁石心肠
趁热打铁 .
花钱如水
一个耳朵进,一个耳朵出
实事求是
眼高手底
欲盖弥彰
to make merry a laughing stock in one’s dream land an outsider all skin and bones/skinny/bony It never rains but pour to seethrough the trickery to see through at a glance to fish in troubled waters to do something by halve save one’s face;(lose face 丢脸) a heart of stone/stone—hearted Strike while the iron is hot to spend money like water to go in at one ear and out at the other to seek truth fromfacts to want to grasp what is beyond one’s reach The more one tries to hide, the more one is exposed.
二.意译
自立 说实话 倾盆大雨 一视同仁 同舟共济 镜花水月 火上加油 三心二意 一模一样 人山人海 欲速不达 字里行间 业精于勤 白纸黑字 一知半解 沽名钓誉
心直口快
to stand on one’s own feet call a spade a spade It rains cats and dogs. fair field and no favour to be in the same boat moonshine in water to pour oil on the flames to be in two minds as alike as two peas a sea of faces haste makes waste to read between the lines practice makes perfect in black and white a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
to fish for compliments to wear one’s heart on one’s sleeves

不遗余力
一箭双雕;一举两得 谦受益,满招损 闯祸 开夜车 对牛弹琴 害群之马 不伦不类 雨后春笋 掌上明珠 乱七八糟 千载难逢
进退两难,进退维谷 骑墙 伤感情 见世面 智穷才尽
醉翁之意不在酒
to spare no effort (to leave no stone unturned) to kill two birds with one stone Pride goes before fall a bull in a china shop to burn the midnight oil to cast pearls to the swine a black sheep
neither fish nor flesh
to spring up like mushrooms the apple of one’s eye to be at sixes and sevens once in a blue moon
on the horns of a dilemma to sit on the fence
to wound one’s feelings to see the world at one’s wits end
Many kiss a baby for the nurse’s sake.

ADDITIONAL READING MATERIALS
The Dreamer
看过这篇文章,你或许也想做个追梦人!

1. When I was nine years old living in a small town in North Carolina I found an ad for selling greeting cards in the back of a children’s magazine. I though to myself, I can do this, I begged my mother to let me send for the kit. Two weeks later when the kit arrived, I ripped off the brown paper wrapper, grabbed the cards and dashed from the house. Three hours later, I returned home with no card and a pocket full of money proclaiming. “Mama, all the people couldn’t wait to buy my cards!”. A salesperson was born.
2. When I was twelve years old, my father took me to see Zig Ziegler. I remember sitting in that dark auditorium listening to Mr. Zigler raise everyone’s up to the ceiling. I left there feeling like I could do anything. When we got to the car, I turned to my father and said, “Dad, I want to make people feel like that.” My father asked me what I meant. “I want to be a motivational speaker just like Mr. Zigler,” I replied. A dream was born.
3. Recently, I began pursuing my dream of motivating other. After a four-year relationship with a major fortune 100 company beginning as a salestrainer and ending as a regional sales manager, I left the company at the height of my career. Many people were astounded that I would leave after earning a six-figure income. And they asked why I would risk everything for a dream.
4. I made my decision to start my own company and leave my secure position after attending a regional sales meeting. The vice-president of our company delivered a speed that changed my life. He asked us,” If a genie would grant you three wishes what would they be?” After giving us a moment to write down the three wishes, he then asked us, “Why do you need a genie?” I would never forget the empowerment I felt at that moment.
译文
1.我九岁的时候住在北卡罗来纳州的一个小镇上,一次在一本儿童杂志的背面发现了一则招聘明信片推销员的广告。我对自己说,我能干这事。我恳求妈妈让我去叫人送来全套货物。两个星期后,货送来了,我一把撕下明信片棕色的包装纸,冲出了家门。三个小时候,我的卡片已经一张不剩,倒是带着满满一口袋钱回到了家,大叫: “妈妈,所有的人都迫不及待地想买我的卡片!”。一个推销员诞生了。
2.我十二岁的时候,父亲带我去见齐格·齐格勒先生。我还记得当时坐在昏暗的礼堂里听着齐格勒先生的演说,他把每个人都说得热情高涨,跃跃欲试。离开的时候我觉得自己可以做任何事情。我们上了车,我转过身对父亲

说道:“爸爸,我也想让人们这样。”爸爸问我的话是什么意思。“我想当一个像齐格勒先生这样的鼓动演说者。” 我回答到。一个梦想诞生了。
3.最近,我开始鼓舞他人,努力实现自己的梦想。在此之前的四年里,我在一个拥有100家公司的财团做事,从一个销售培训员做到地区销售经理,在我事业达到颠峰时我离开了这家公司。许多人都十分惊讶,在收入达到六位数时我却选择了离开。他们问我为什么要为了梦想而去冒险。
4.我是在参加了一次地区销售会议后,才拿定主意离开自己的安全港湾,去开自己的公司的。在那次会议上,我们公司的副总裁所说的话从而改变了我的命运。他问我们:“如果一 个神仙会满足你的三个愿望,那么你将会希望得到什么?”他让我们写下自己的愿望,然后却问我们:“为什么你们会需要神仙呢?”,我永远也忘不了这句话在那一刻对我的震撼。
Straw Hat In The Wind
简洁的文字,对母爱的呼唤,两者都全在不经意中深深地打动你!

Mama, that summer, on the way to 1) Klitsemi, my straw hat flew down the mountains. Mama, do you remember, the old straw hat you gave to me? I lost that hat long ago, it flew to the 2) foggy canyon. Mama, I wonder what happened to that old straw hat which fell down the mountain-side and 3) whirled out of my reach like your heart. Suddenly that wind came up, stealing my hat from me. 4) Swirling gust of wind blew it higher, and higher … Mama, that old straw hat was the only one I really love. But I lost it, no one could bring it back, like the life you give me.
Mama, that summer, on the way to Klitsemi, I lost my straw hat. The 5) lilies along the road 6) wilted. And under that straw hat, the 7) crickets wept every night … 译文
妈妈,就在那年夏天,在去克里兹米的路上,我的那顶草帽,掉进了山谷。妈妈,你还记得吗?记得你给我的那顶草帽吗?很久以前我遗落了,它飘向了雾霭的深谷。
妈妈,那顶旧草帽不知怎么了,掉进了山谷,就像你的心,我抓也抓不到。忽然,吹起一阵风,抢走了我那草帽,把他卷得越来越高……妈妈,那顶旧草帽,是我唯一的爱,就像是你给我的生命,丢失了,再也找不到。
妈妈,就在那年夏天,在往克里兹米的路上,我的草帽掉了。路边的百合都枯萎了。在那草帽下面,每天晚上都有蟋蟀在哭泣…… NOTES:
1)Klitsemi 日本一地名
2)foggy adj. 有雾的,起雾的 3)whirl v. 回旋,旋转 4)swirl v. 旋涡,回旋 5)lily n. 百合,百合花 6)wilt v. 枯萎,凋谢 7)cricket n. 蟋蟀
Youth
By Samuel Erman
青春的文字原来也可以如此的美丽激昂!
1. Youth is not a time of life, it is a state of mind, it is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips and supple knees, it is a matter of the will, a quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions, it is the freshness of the deep spring of life.
2. Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. This often exits in a man of 60 more than a boy of 20. Nobody grows merely by a number of years, we grow old by deserting our idea.
3. Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, fear, self-distrust bows the heart and turns the spirit back to dust.
4. Whether 60 or 16, there is in every human being’s heart the lure of wonders, the unfailing childlike appetite of what’s next and the joy of the game of living. In the center of your heart and my heart thereis a wireless station: so long as it

receives messages of beauty, hope, cheer, courage and power from the infinite, so long as you are young.
5. When the aerials are down, and your spirit is covered with snows of cynicism and the ice of pessimism. Then you’ve grown old, even at 20, but as long as your aerials are up to catch waves of optimism, there’s hope you may die young at 80.
青 春
[美]塞缪·俄尔曼

1.青春不是生命的一段时光,不是指红润的脸颊、红扑扑的嘴唇和柔软的双膝;它是一种精神状态,是指不懈的干劲、丰富的想象力和滚烫的情怀。它是生命春意正浓时鲜活的记忆。
2.它是生命之源勃勃生机的涌泉。青春意味着战胜懦弱的那股大丈夫气慨和摈弃安逸的那种冒险精神。往往一个60 岁的老者比一个20 岁的青年更多一点这种劲头。人老不仅仅是岁月流逝所致,更主要的是懒惰、不思进取的结果。
3.光阴可以在颜面上留下印记,而热情之火的熄灭则在心灵上刻下皱纹。遗憾、恐惧、缺乏自信,会扭曲人的灵魂,并将青春化为灰烬。
4.无论是 60 岁还是 16 岁,你需要保持永不衰竭的好奇心,永不熄灭的孩提般求知的渴望和追求事业成功的欢乐与热情。在你我的心底,都有一座无线电台;它能在多长时间里接收到人间万物传递来的美好、希望、欢乐、鼓舞和力量信息,你就会年轻多长时间。
5.当天线倒塌时,你的精神就被玩世不恭和悲观厌世的冰雪所覆盖,你就会衰老下去,即使你只是20 岁;而你的无线巍然矗立着的时候,凭着高昂的乐观主义,你就有希望在80岁死去时仍然韶华不逝。
Be a Queen
By Oprah Winfrey
情真意浓,字字铿锵。文字中不乏演讲辞的简练与激情。读完之后,你才知道,做个真 正的女人,你必须:
Be a queen. Dare to be different. Be a pioncer. Be a leader. Be the kind of woman who in the face of diversity will continue to embrace life and walk fearlessly toward the challenge. Take it on! Be a truth seeker and rule your domain, whatever it is – your home, your office, your family – with a loving heart. Be a queen. Be tender. Continue to give birth to new ideas and rejoice in your womanhood … My prayer is that we will stop wasting time being mundane and mediocre … It doesn’t matter what you’ve been through, where you come from, who your parents are – nor your social or economic status. None of that matters. What matters is how you choose to love, how you choose to express that love through your work through your family, through what you have to give to the world. Be a queen, Own your power and your glory!
[美句拾贝]:
● Bethe kind of woman who in the face of diversity will continue to embrace life and walk fearlessly toward the challenge.
● Be a truth seeker and rule your domain.
● We will stop wasting time being mundane and mediocre.
● What matters is how you choose to love, how you choose to express that love through your workthrough your family, through what you have to give to the world.
Ode to October
By Russell Baker(拉塞尔·贝克尔)
文字清新洗练,句型活泼欢快,委实一篇难得佳作!
Aside from a minor body of sentiment in favor of May, there is little disagreement that October is the best month of the year. It is the one month when man and nature are mist nearly in harmony. Temperatures, moderate in the daytime and invigorating by evening, are conducive to reflective thought, exhilaratingexercise, outdoor labor, charitable endeavor, courtship and pleasant romps with babies and small children.
October surpasses all the summer months by virtue of being the first in nearly half a year to clear the streets of college-age people. And it does so without diminishing the pleasure of life for the departed young. They are back at

school, marking new friendships and renewing old ones, and in October — blessed October — they are not yet haunted by prospects of failure.
There are few moments in life that bring husband and wife closer in reflective communion than the first October moment by a blazing hearth when they inhale the odor of mothballs in each other’s sweaters and agree it’s time they once again had a long talk. This cannot be enjoyed in November, December, January or February because most people get bored with making fires in the fireplace after the first few in October.
The physical beauty of October affects the most insensitive natures, if only subconsciously, with a heightened appreciation of esthetic satisfactions. You don’t see millions of people gaping from slowmoving automobiles to look at trees in January of March or even May.
No other month concludes with such dramatic charm and wit. In Halloween, October has come up withthe perfect way to end the unbeatable month. It is the ideal holiday, for it lasts only a few hours and requires very little preparation. Its ingredients are bright color, gaiety, noise and a suspension of disbelief that justifies persons of all ages behaving childishly for three or four hours, which is just about long enough.
Hail, October! March thou never wert, much less February.
From Reader’s Digest

十 月 颂
拉塞尔·贝克

除了少数多愁善感的人赞美五月以外,对于十月是一年中最好的月份几乎没有异议。就在这个十月,人类与大自然处于最近乎和谐的境界。气候,白天温和宜人,入晚则令人心旷神怡,宜于沉思冥想,宜于做令人振奋的运动,宜于室外劳作,宜于为慈善事业操劳,宜于谈情说爱和逗引幼小孩子们蹦跳嬉闹。
十月胜过整个夏季,因为它是将近半年的时间里街头见不到大学生的第一个月。 虽然街上没有了大学生,但离去的青年们并没有因此而减少生活的乐趣。他们回到了学校,结识新友,重温旧谊。十月——幸福的十月里,他们尚未被失败的阴影所笼罩。
十月初临时,夫妻依傍着融融的炉火,他们闻到对方毛衣散发出的卫生球气味,默契地认为该是他们再一次促膝长谈的时候了。如此亲密无间沉浸在感情交流之中,一生中能有几回!而在十一月、十二月、一月或二月却无此享受,因为十月头几无几番融融炉火之后,大多数人对生火已感到厌烦了。
十月的自然美景会感染那些即使感觉最迟钝的人,哪怕无意识地也会增强他们对美的欣赏。你不会在一月或三月甚至在五月,见到数以百万计的人从缓缓行驶的汽车里凝视路旁的树木。 没有哪一个月份结束的那一天,具有如此戏剧性的魅力和风趣。万圣节前夕*,十月以无瑕的方式宣告这个无与伦比之月的结束。这个节是最理想的节,因为它只持续几个小时,也无需做什么准备。它的特征是:色彩明亮,气氛欢乐,三四个小时恰到好处。
万岁,十月!汝非三月,更非二月。Halloween 注:万圣节前夕:Halloween 10 月 31 日
January Wind
By Hal Borland
精美而华丽的文字描写,堪称英语散文之精品!
The January wind has a hundred voices. It can scream, it can bellow, it can whisper, and it can sing a lullaby. It can roar through the leafless oaks and shout down the hillside, and it can murmur in the white pines rooted among the granite ledges where lichen makes strange hieroglyphics. It can whistle down a chimney and set the hearth-flames to dancing. On a sunny day it can pause in a sheltered spot and breathe a promise of spring and violets. In the cold of a lonely night it can rattle the sash and stay there muttering of ice and snow-banks and deep-frozen ponds.
Sometimes the January wind seems to come from the farthest star in the outer darkness, so remote and so impersonal is its voice. That is the wind of a January dawn, in the half-light that trembles between day night. It is a wind that merely quivers the trees, its force sensed but not seen, a force that might almost hold back the day if it were so directed. Then the east brightens, and the wind relaxes —— the stars, its source, grown dim.
And sometimes the January wind is so intimate that you know it came only from the next hill, a little wind that

plays with leaves and puffs at chimney smoke and whistle like a little boy with puckered lips. It makes the little cedar trees quiver, as with delight. It shadow-boxes with the weather-vane. It tweaks an ear, and whispers laughing words about crocuses and daffodils, and nips the nose and dances off.
But you never know, until you hear its voice, which wind is here today. Or, more important, which will be here tomorrow.
一 月 的 风
一月的风有千种声音,万种风情。它时而尖声呼啸,时而大声咆哮,时而柔声细语,时而哼唱一首摇篮曲;它时而怒吼着冲过秃枝的橡树,呐喊着掠下山坡,时而攀上花岗岩壁,在银白色的松林中沙沙私语。在那里青苔描画出奇形怪状的象形文字;它时而钻进烟囱呼呼作响,惹得炉膛内火飞焰舞。阳光明媚的时候,它去找个角落栖息,轻声细语地吟唱着温暖的春光和甜蜜的紫罗兰花香的到来;而在夜寒寂静之际,它又会抖动窗棂,咕哝着冰冻、雪丘和池溏深冻的降临。
有时,一月的风好似来自最为深邃的外层星空,它的声音是那么遥远,那么不可捉摸。这就是那晨曦微露时,幽暗在昼夜间飘摆不定的微光中的一月的风。正是这股一月的晨风,它只能使树枝抖动,它的风力只可感觉到却看不见。如果你愿意,它或许能够挽住白昼的步履,一旦东方破晓,群星——风之源泉渐渐暗淡,风便也停息。
有时,一月的风是那么的令人亲切可爱,仿佛就象来自自家屋旁的小山坡,它在叶丛中玩耍,或抚弄袅袅炊烟,或像小孩一样撅起小嘴吹响口哨。它能使低矮的雪松欣喜地招手,或与旋转的风标切磋拳术,或拧住你的耳朵细诉藏红花和黄水仙的趣事,然后捏捏你的鼻头,轻轻地飞去。
然而,在你听到它的声音之前,你无法知道今天的风会带来哪种风情,更不知道明天的 风又会是怎样一番情趣。
ADog’s Eye View of Man (1)
JAMES THURBER
If Man has benefited (1) immeasurably by his association (2) with the dog, what, you may ask, has the dog got out of it? His scroll (3) has, of course, been heavily charged with punishments: he has known the muzzle (4), the leash (5), and the tether; (6) he has suffered the indignities of the show bench (7), the tin can on the tail, the ribbon in the hair; his love life with the other sex of his species has been regulated by the frigid hand of authority, his digestion ruined by the macaroons (8) and marshmallows (9) of doting (10) women. The list of his woes (11) could be continued indefinitely. But he has also had his fun, for he has been privileged to live with and study at close range (12) they only creature with reason, the most unreasonable of creatures.
The dog has got more fun out of Man than Man has got out of the dog, for the clearly demonstrable reason that Man is the more laughable of the two animals. The dog has long been bemused (13) by the singular activities and the curious practices of men, cocking (14) his head inquiringly to one side, intently watching and listening to the strangest goings-on (15) in the world. He has seen men sing together and fight one another in the same evening. He has watched them go to bed when it is time to get up, and get up when it is time to go to bed. He has observed them destroying the soil in vast areas, and nurturing (16) it in small patches. He has stood by white men built strong and solid houses for rest and quiet, and the filled them with lights and bells and machinery. His sensitive nose, which can detect what cooking in the next township, has caught at one and the same time the bewildering smells of the hospital and the munitions factory (17). He has seen men raise up great cities to heaven and then blow them to hell.
[Selected from The Norton Reader]
Notes:
1.詹姆斯瑟伯(1894—1961):美国作家漫画家创作了大量的随笔小品文代表作有My Life and Hard Times, Men, Women and Dogs以及Fables for Our Times。本文便是一篇优秀的小品文作者巧妙地运用Abird’s view这个短语把 bird换成 dog。但题目让人耳目一新。
狗 瞰 人 类
詹伯斯·瑟伯
倘若人类与狗交往则受益无穷,君则要问,狗与人交往有何所得?毫无疑问,狗之周身受刑累累:他领教了口套,皮带与链绳之约束;畜犬展览会的陈列台,尾巴上的洋铁罐,毛发中的装饰带,皆使他尊严丧尽,有苦难言;他与同类异性的恋爱生活,也被主人那冷若冰霜之手牢牢控制;那溺爱成性的女人,又用饼干糖果败坏了他

的消化功能。其苦其痛,可谓罄竹难书矣,但他亦自得其乐因为能与万物之中独有理智又最不讲情理的生灵同吃同住,而且可就近观察研究,也算其受惠非浅矣。
狗之乐取之于人,多于人之乐取之于狗,其故显而易见:两种动物相比,人类更为可笑。长期以来,狗被人类那些异常活动和古怪做法弄得迷离茫然,他翘起脑袋,若有所询地倾向一边,专心致志地观看,聆听天下最奇最怪之事。他亲眼目睹过人类齐声欢唱,而就在同天晚上大打出手。他亦曾见过人们该起床时却睡觉,或是该睡觉时却起床。他还见过人类恣意毁掉广袤之壤,却对弹丸之地精心照料。他曾经袖手旁观,看人类建造用之歇息和安宁的坚固房屋之后却装上电灯,安上钟铃,再塞进各式机器设备。他那只能嗅出邻区何物之炊香的敏锐之鼻,却在某一时刻闻到了医院和军火工厂散发出的令人困惑的臭气。他目睹人类筑起高耸云霄的座座巨城,然后再把它们兀然炸毁,送入地狱。
A TRIBUTE TO THE DOG
By George Graham West
The best friend a man has in this world may turn against him and become his enemy. His son or daughter whom he has reared with loving care may prove ungrateful. Those who are nearest and dearest to us, those whom we trust with our happiness and our good name, may become traitors to their faith.
The money that a man has he may lose. It flies away from him, perhaps when he needs it most. A man’s reputation may be sacrificed in a moment of ill-considered action. The people who are prone to fall on their knees to do us honor when success is with us may be the first to throw the stone of malice when failure settles its cloud upon our heads. The one absolute, unselfish friend a man may have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous, is his dog.
A man’s dog stands by him in prosperity and in poverty, in health and in sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground when the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, if only he can be near his master’s side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to offer. He will lick the sores and wounds that come in the encounter with the roughness of the world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince.
When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches take wings and reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in its journey through the heavens. If fortune drives the master forth, an outcast in the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dog asks no higher privilege than that of accompanying him to guard him against danger, to fight against his enemies. And when the last scene of all comes and death takes its master in its embrace and the body is laid away in the cold ground, no matter if all other friends pursue their way, there by his graveside will the noble dog be found, his head between his paws, his eyes sad but open in alert watchfulness faithful and true even to death.
参考译文
义犬颂
世上的莫逆之交可能反目为仇。一心钟爱养育成人的儿女到头来可能变成忘恩负义的冤家。我们的亲朋挚友,我们以幸福和荣誉相托的人,也许会背叛其旦旦信誓。人的金钱会丢失。可能在最需要的时候,不翼而飞。片刻考虑欠周的言行,会招致声名狼藉,我们飞黄腾达时,那些善于屈膝下跪,阿谀逢迎的人,在失败的阴云笼罩我们的时候,可能就是首先恶意投井下石的人。在这自私自利的人世,一个人所能够得到的完全舍已为人永不抛弃他,永不忘恩负义和永不欺诈他的唯一的朋友。那就是他的狗。
不管他是富裕还是贫困,是健壮还是多病,寸步不离他的还是他的狗。尽管寒风呼啸,雨雪霏霏,只要能贴近主人的身边,它甘愿睡卧在冰冷的地上,它愿意亲吻主人那只没有食物可施的空手,它愿舔主人在这险恶的人世斗争中遭受的创伤,它保护着一贫如洗的主人安睡,就象保护一位王子一样。
所有其他朋友都纷纷离去时,它却安然不动。主人财尽名裂时,它永远爱他,热爱之情就象太阳在天空中运行那永恒不变如果受命运之神的捉弄,主人在世上颠沛流离无亲可投,无家可归,那忠贞不渝的义犬除了希图伴随主人,保卫主人免受危险,同主人的敌人作斗争外,别无他图当人生最终的一幕降临时,死神夺去它的主人,尸体埋葬在冰冷的地下。不管是否所有其他友人都纷纷离去,我们仍会发现那品德高尚的犬,守候在他的墓旁,两只前足托着头部忧伤而圆睁的双眼在机警地提防着—虔诚忠贞死而后已。

新概念四册原文的补充材料1

HOW TO GROW OLD
By Bertrand Russell
[1]In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject, My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors, My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven, but my other three grandparents all lived to be over eighty. Of remoter ancestors I can only discover one who did not live to a great age, and he died of a disease which is now rare, namely, having his head cut off. A great grandmother of mine, who was a friend of Gibbon, lived to the age of ninety-two, and to her last day remained a terror to all her descendants, My maternal grandmother, after having mine children who survived, one who died in infancy, and many miscarriages, as soon as she became a widow devoted herself to woman’s higher education. She was one of the founders of Girton College, and worked hard at opening the medical profession of to women. She used to relate how she met in Italy an elderly gentleman who was looking very sad. She inquired the cause of his melancholy and he said that he had just parted from his two grandchildren. “Good gracious”, she exclaimed, “I have seventy-two grandchildren, and if I were sad each time I parted from one of them, I should have a dismal existence!” “Madre snaturale,” he replied. But speaking as one of the seventy-two, I prefer her recipe. After the age of eighty she found she had some difficulty in getting to sleep, so she habitually spent the hours from midnight to 3a.m. in reading popular science. I do not believe that she ever had time to notice that she was growing old. This, I think, is proper recipe for remaining young. If you have wide and keen interests and activities in which you can still be effective, you will have no reason to think about the merely statistical fact of the number of years you have already lived, still less of the probable brevity of your future.

[2] As regards health I have nothing useful to say since I have little experience of illness. I eat and drink whatever I like, and sleep when I cannot keep awake. I never do anything whatever on the ground that it is good for health, though in actual fact the things I like doing are mostly wholesome.

[3] Psychologically there are two dangers to be guarded against in old age. One of these is undue absorption in the past. It does not do to live in memories, in regrets for the good old days, or in sadness about friends who are dead. One’s thoughts must be directed to the future and to things about which there is something to be done. This is not always easy: one’s own past is gradually increasing weight. It is easy to think to oneself that one’s emotions used to be more vivid than they are, and one’s mind more keen. If this is true it should be forgotten, and if it is forgotten it will probably not be true.

[4] The other thing to be avoided is clinging to youth in the hope of sucking vigour from its vitality. When your children are grown up they want to live their own lives, and if you continue to be as interested in them as you were when they were young, you are likely to become a burden to them, unless they are unusually callous. I do not mean that one should be without interest in them, but one’s interest should becontemplative and, if possible, philanthropic, but not unduly emotional. Animals become indifferent to their young as soon as their young can look after themselves, but human beings, owing to the length of infancy, find this difficult.

[5] I think that a successful old age is easiest for those who have strong impersonal interests involving appropriate activities. It is in this sphere that long experience is really fruitful, and it is in this sphere that the wisdom born of experience can be exercised without being oppressive. It is no use telling grown-up children not to make mistakes, both because they will not believe you, and because mistakes are an essential part of education. But if you are one of those who are incapable of impersonal interests, you may find that your life will be empty unless you concern yourself with your children and grandchildren. In that case you must realize that while you can still render them material services, such

as making them an allowance or knitting them jumpers, you must not expect that they will enjoy your company.

[6] Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death. In the young there is a justification for this feeling. Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer. But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject and ignoble. The best way to overcome it — So at least it seems to me — is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life be comes increasingly merged in the universal life. An individual human existence should be like a river – small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past rocks and over waterfalls. Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being. The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue. And if , with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest will not be unwelcome. I should wish to die while still at work, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do and content in the thought that what was possible has been done.
[参考译文]:
如何延年益寿
[英]伯特兰·罗素 著
[1]尽管题目是谈如何延年益寿,本文其实讨论的是如何不变老。这个话题在我这个年龄尤为重要,我的第一项建议是选择祖先要慎之又慎。虽然我的双亲很早就过世了,但我在选择其他祖先方面还是做得相当出色的。我的外祖父在67岁时就去世了,真可谓英年早逝啊!但我的祖父、祖母和外祖母都活到80多岁。至于再远一些的祖先,我只能说出一位 没活到高龄就死的,他死于当今罕见的一种疾病 —— 上断头台。我有位曾祖母 —— 是吉 本老先生的一位朋友 —— 活到了92岁,直到她去世的那一天还让她的儿孙们感到害怕。我的外祖母生过好多孩子,活下来九个,有一个夭折,还有过几次小产。她在守寡当初,便致力于妇女的高等教育事业。她是葛登学院的创始人之,为使妇女可以从事医疗事业而勤奋工作。她常和我们谈起她如何在意大利遇到一位上年纪的绅士,样子很悲伤,她问他为何悲伤,他说有两个孙子离开了他。一听这话,她大声说道:“天哪!我有72个孙儿,要是其中一个离我而去,我就得伤心一场,那我的日子还要不要过了!”听她这么一说,他便说:“不同寻常的母亲啊!”。作为她72个孙儿中的一位,我还是崇尚她的处世方法。80岁之后,她 开始出现失眠的情况。于是她常常从午夜到凌晨三点阅读生产资料书籍。我觉得她根本就腾不出时间去注意自己在一天天地衰老起来。我认为这正是保持年轻的正确方法。如果你有广泛浓厚的兴趣爱好,并且还能有效地参加许多活动的话,你就没有理由光从数字上去考虑问题,即活了多少岁数,更不会去考虑可能余年有限的事了。
[2]至于健康方面,我根本就没有什么有益的东西可说,因为我难得生病。凡是我喜欢吃的我就吃,凡是我喜欢喝的我就喝。两眼惺忪时就去睡觉。不管做什么样的事情;我不会刻意地根据它对健康是否不益才去做, 而事实上,我所喜欢做的事情绝大多数是于健康不益的。
[3]从心理上而言,上了年纪之后,要提防两种危险。其一是过份沉缅于过去。在回忆中生活是不行的,对逝去的美好时光长嘘短叹要不得,为死去的亲朋好友而伤感也于事无补。一个人应当着眼于未来,着眼于一些该做的事情上。做到这点不是件容易的事。人的过去都会渐渐变成一种负担。人们很容易有这样的想法:过去的情感往往比眼前的更为强烈,而过去的思路比眼前的更为敏捷。要是的确存在这种情况的话,应当尽快把它忘却。一旦忘却了这种情况。那它也就不复存在了。
[4]应当避免的另一件事是过份地纠缠年轻人不放,希望从他们那里获取活力。儿女们一旦长大成人,他们便以自己的方式生活。如果你一味地像过去他们年幼时那样去关心他们,那么你极可能成为他们的负担,除非他们是完全无动于衷的人。我不是说一个人对儿女不必关心,但每个人的关心应当三思,要是可能的话,关心应当是博大仁慈的,切莫过分感情用事。年幼的动物一旦能够独立,成年动物就不会再去关心它们;而人类由于婴儿期太长而很难做到这点。
[5]我认为那些有强烈兴趣爱好并参与各种适当活动的人最容易做到颐养天年。长期获得的经验真正富有成果的就在于此;经验之中产生的智慧得以应用而不让人觉得厌烦也正是这样的结果。告诫成年儿女们不要犯错误是毫无用处的,因为他们不会认同你。况且错误是教育的重要组成部分。但是如果你是一位完全不可能有其它兴趣爱好的人,那么你会发现除了全身心地关心儿孙以外,你的生活是空虚的。有鉴于此,你必须认识到在你仍
然能够给他们提供物质帮助之时,诸如给他们点钱,或为他们织些衣物之类以外,绝对不要指望他们会乐于你陪伴他们左右。
[6]有些老人由于惧怕死亡而很压抑。年轻人有这种感觉是无可非议的。那些有理由担心自己会战死沙场的年青人的思想深处有痛苦,觉得生活提供给他们的最美好的东西被骗走了,这点是无可厚非的。但死亡的恐惧发生在曾经经历地生活甘苦,在他所从事的工作中获得过成就的老年人身上,实在有点让人感到难堪和不怎么体面。克服这种恐惧的最佳途径——至少在我看来——是使你的兴趣爱好变得更广泛、更不具有个人情感色彩,直到自我的墙壁一点点坍塌为止,同时你的生命也日渐融入芸芸众生之中。一个人的生命应当象河流,开始是涓涓细流,受两岸的限制而十分狭窄,尔后奔腾咆哮,翻过危岩,飞越瀑布,河面渐渐开阔,河岸也随之向两边隐去,最后水流平缓,森森无际,汇入大海之中,个体就这样毫无痛苦地消失了。上了年纪的人能以这样的心境来看待自己的生活,就不会遭受惧怕死亡的痛苦,因为他所关爱的一切将继续如常。随着活力的日益消退。倦怠日增,这时想起死亡便是再自然不过的了。我希望在尚能工作的时候死去,得知我已无望再完成事业后继有人,我死而无憾,我会为我已完成自己力所能及的事业而感到无比欣慰。
新概念四册原文补充材料 2

Painting as a Pastime
By Winston S. Churchill
To have reached the age of 40 without even handling a brush, to have regarded the painting of pictures as a mystery, and then suddenly to find oneself plunged in the middle of a new interest with paints and palettes and canvases, and not to be discouraged by results, is an astonishing and enriching experience. I hope it may be shared by others.
For, to be really happy, one ought to have hobbies, and they must all be real. Best of all, and easiest to take up, are sketching and painting.
Painting is complete as a distraction. I know of nothing which, without exhausting the body, more entirely absorbs the mind. Whatever the worries of the hour or the threats of the future, once the picture has begun to flow along there is no room for them on the mental screen. They pass out into shadow and darkness. All one’s mental light become concentrated on the task.
Painting came to my rescue at a most trying time. when I left the Admiralty at the end of May 1915, I still remained a member of the Cabinet and of the War Council. In this position I knew everything and could do nothing. I had vehement convictions and small power to give effect to them. I had long hours of utterly unwonted leisure at a moment when every fiber of my being was inflamed to action.
And then, one Sunday in the country, some experiments with the children’s paintbox led me to procure the step was to begin. The palette gleamed with beads of color; fair and white rose the canvas; the empty brush hung poised, heavy with destiny, irresolute in the air. Very gingerly I mixed a little blue paint with a very small brush, and then with infinite precaution made a mark about as big as a bean upon the affronted snow-white shield.
At that moment a motorcar was heard in the drive, and from it there stepped the gifted wife of Sir John Lavery, the distinguished portrait painter. “Painting! But what are you hesitating about? Let me have a brush – the big one.” Splash into the turpentine, wallop into the blue and the white, frantic flourish on the palette — clean no longer — and then several large, fierce strokes on the absolutely cowering canvas. The spell was broken. The sickly inhibitions rolled away. I seized the largest brush and fell upon my victim with berserk fury. I have never felt any awe of a canvas since.
绘画消遣
温斯顿·S·丘吉尔
人到不惑之年还从未动过画笔,且一向认为绘画是件神秘莫测之事,却突然发现自己沉浸于对油彩、调色板和画布的新的乐趣之中,而且成败在所不计—这确实是一个令人惊讶又大有裨益的经历。我真希望这种乐趣也能为他人所分享。
要知道,一个人若要真的生活愉快,就得有多种业余爱好,而且都该是些实实在在的爱好。其中,最有意思

且最易上手的要算是画素描和油画了。
作为一种消遣,绘画是十全十美的。就我所知,什么都比不上绘画能让人全神贯注又不致于弄得精疲力竭。不管当前有多少烦恼,也不管将来有什么威胁,只要一画上手,它们在心灵的屏幕上就没有容身之地,而遁入阴影与黑暗之中。你的全副精神都有会倾注于面前的画面上。
绘画正是在我十分艰难之时救了我的驾。1915年5月底我离开海军部后仍是内阁和战时会议的成员。处于这一地位,我无所不知,但又无能为力。我怀有强烈的信念,却无法予以实现。我忧心如焚,渴望投入行动;而正是在这时候,我却例外地无所事事,度日如年。
此间,一次在乡下过周末的,随手拿孩子们的油彩信手涂鸦的几笔竟然促使我第二天去买了一整套油画用品。下一步就该动手干了。调色板上油彩珠光闪烁;绷在架上的画布洁白无瑕:干净的画笔举在空中,任重如山,犹豫不决。我战战兢兢地拿起一支很小的画笔,蘸了一点点蓝色油彩,然后不无冒犯地在那雪白的画布上小心翼翼地画下了豆大的一点。
正在这时,听到车道上有汽车的声音,车里走出来著名肖像画家约翰。莱弗爵士的才华横溢的妻子。“画画呢!那你还犹豫什么?给我一支笔,大个的。”浓浓地蘸上松节油,重重地抹上蓝色和白色油彩,狠狠地在调色板上一拌——再也不那么干净了——接着龙飞凤舞地在俯首贴耳的画布上涂上几大笔!神秘感一下子被打破了。内心的无名恐惧顿时烟消云散。我抓起最大的一支画笔,使出全身力气向我的俘虏发起猛烈的进攻。从此以后,我对画布再 也不望而生畏了。
The River and the Swan

My special lady, dancer of life,
Come and go as you please
When you move with such ease
Hey, I’d like to own you,
But I won’t even try,
When free things are owned,
They always wither and die.
And I wouldn’t kill anything in you
For my image and pride.
I will not use love’s altar
For murder to hide.
我独一无二的女士啊,生命的舞娘, 你自如地来去 款款莲步轻移 嗨,多想拥有你, 但我决不尝试, 自由自在的精灵一旦被拥有, 就只会枯萎凋零。 你的一切我都不会忧虑戕害 因为那是我的冀望,我的骄傲。 我不会以爱为祭坛 在当中把杀机深藏。
I won’t try to won you,
Shoot you down from the sky,
When free things are owned
They just wither and die.
I won’t try to have you
Only for me …
Just know that I loveyou
And my love is free
我决不试着去拥有你, 将你从天空击落, 自由自在的精灵一旦被拥有 便只会枯萎凋零。 我决不试着拥有你 只是为了我的缘故…… 只要你明白我爱你, 我的爱无怨无悔。
So I’ll be the river,
Hey, you be the swan.
I’ll reflect your wings
As you cross the Sun.
When you go away,
That will be too soon,
I’ll still send you the sorrow
As you circle the Moon.
那么我愿成为河流 而你是那天鹅。 以倒影留住你的双翼 在你飞越了太阳的时候。 当你远去, 纵然再快, 我依然会把哀伤送去 当你绕着月亮飞翔时候。

I’ll follow my course Till I merge with the sea.
Just remember what I told you, You’re a special lady to me. 我奔流向前
直至与海洋汇合。
只要你记着我说过的话, 你是我独一无二的女士。
But I didn’t try to own you, Shoot you down from the sky, When free things are owned, They just wither and die. I didn’t try to have you Only for me …
Just know that I love you And my love is free …
我从不曾试着去拥有你, 将你从天空击落,
自由自在的精灵一旦被拥有, 便只会枯萎凋零。 我不曾试着去拥有你, 只是为了我的缘故…… 只要你明白我爱你, 我的爱无怨无悔……

Mana (song)
Sung by Spice Girls
She used to be my only enemy and never let me free, Catching me in places that I know I shouldn’t be. Every other day I crossed the line, I didn’t mean to be so bad,
I never thought you would become the friend I never had.
Back then I didn’t know why, Why you were misunderstood, So now I see through your eyes, All that you did was love,
Mama I love you, Mama I care,
Mama I love you, Mama my fried, My friend
I didn’t want to heart it then but I’m not ashamed to say it now, Every little thing you said and did was right for me,
I had a lot of time to think about, about the way I usedto be, Never had a sense of my responsibility.
Back then I didn’t know why, why you were misunderstood, So now I see through your eyes, all that you did was love, Mama I love you Mama I care,
Mama I love you, Mama my friend, My friend
But now I’m sure I know why, why you were misunderstood, So now I see through your eyes, all I can give you is love, Mama I love you, Mama I care,
Mama I love you, Mama my friend, My friend
Mama I love you, Mama I care, Mama I love you, Mama my friend, You’re my friend

UNDERNEATH THE STARS

Lyrics: Mariah Carey (song)
Music: Mariah Carey, Walter Afanasieff
Vocal: Mariah Carey

One summer night
We ran away for a while
Laughing, we hurried beneath the sky To an obscure place to hide That no one could find
And we drifted to another state of mind
And imagined I was yours and you were mine As we lay upon the grass There in the dark Underneath the stars (Young love)
Underneath the stars
Weak in the knees
Wrapped in the warm gentle breeze So shy, a bundle of butterflies Flush with heat of desire On a natural high
As we drifted to another place in time And the feeling was so heady and sublime As I lost my heart to you There in the dark Underneath the stars (Young love)
Beautiful and bitter sweetly You were fading into me
And I was gently fading into you But the time went sailing by Reluctantly we said good-bye
And left our secret place so far behind And I lay in bed all night and I was Drifting drifting drifting drifting
And I was yours, and you were mine My own baby as we lay As we …
Underneath the stars

Two Become One
Sung by Spice Girls
Candle light and soul forever. A dream of you and me together. Say you believe it, say you believe it. Free your mind of doubt and danger. Be for real. Don’t be a stranger
We can achieve it. We can achieve it.
Come a little bit closer baby. Get it on. Get it on. ‘Cause tonight is the night, when two become one I need some love like I have never needed before Wanna make love to ya, baby. I have a little love
Now, I’m back for more
Wanna makelove to ya, baby. Set your spirits free. Its the only way to be.
Silly games that you were playing Empty words we both were saying

Let’s work it out boy. Let’s work it out boy Any deal that we endeavor
Boys and girls feel good together Take it or leave it. Take it or leave it.
Are you as good as I remember, baby? Get it on. Get it on.
‘Cause tonight is the night when two become one I need some love like I had never needed before Wanna make love to ya, baby. I have a little love
Now, I’m back for more
Wanna make love to ya, baby. Set your spirits free It’s the only way to be
Be a little bit wiser baby. Put it on. Put it on. ‘Cause tonight is the night when two become one I need some love like I have never needed before Wanna make love to ya, baby. I havea little love
Now, I’m back for more Wanna make love to ya, baby. (Repeat) Prepared by Brian Jiang

HEAL THE WORLD
拯救世界
Written, Composed & Sung by Michael Jackson
(Think about the generations and say we want to make it a better place for our children and our children’s children. So that day they know it’s a better world for them. And think they can make it a better place.)
[Original lyrics]
There’s a place in your heart And I know that it is love And this place could be
Much brighter than tomorrow And if you really try you’ll find There’s no need to cry In this place you’ll feel There’s no hurt or sorrow
There are ways to get there
If you care enough for the living Make a little space Make a better place
Heal the world
Make it a better place For you and for me
And the entire human race There are people dying

If you care enough for the living Make a better place For you and for me

If you want to know why There’s a love that cannot lie Love is strong
It only cares for joyful giving If we try
Weshall see in this bliss We cannot feel fear or dread We stop existing and start living Then it feels that always
Love’s enough for us growing So make a better world Make a better world
Heal the world
Make it a better place For you and for me
And the entire human race There are people dying
If you care enough for the living Make a better place For you and for me
And the dream we were conceived in Will reveal a joyful face
And the world we once believed in Will shine again in grace
Then why do we keep strangling life Would this earth, crucify its soul Though it’s plain to see This world is heavenly Be God’s glow

We could fly so high
Let our spirits never die in my heart I feel you are all my brothers Create a world with no fear Together we’ll cry happy tears See the nations
Turn their swords into plowshares We could really get there
If you cared enough for the living Make a little space To make a better place

I Have A Dream
by Martin Luther king: Lincoln Memorial Address
The Lincoln Memorial Address was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King. Jr. on August 28, 1963. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. Dr. King, the famous civil rights leader in the 1960s, was assassinated in 1968.
Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of bad captivity.
But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we’ve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.
Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.
I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up, live up to the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day down in Alabama with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.
This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning My country, ’tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing:
Land where my fathers died,

Land of the pilgrims’ pride, From every mountainside Let freedom ring.
And if America is to be a great nation this must become true.
So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York!
Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California!
But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee! Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill ofMississippi! From every mountainside, let freedom ring!
When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God almighty, we are free at last!”

一个世纪以来,有过这样的一位位中国人,他们以各自令人惊叹的完美英语,对世界解说着中国…… 林语堂用英语创作的一系列作品曾经轰动欧美文坛,其中有的被美国大学选为教材,有的被政府视为了解中国之必读……
《生活的艺术》(The Importance of Living)是林语堂用英语写出的旷世之作。林语堂在该书中将旷怀达观, 陶情遣兴的中国人的生活方式,和浪漫高雅的东方情调予以充分的传达,向西方人娓娓道出了一具可供仿效的“生活最高典型”的模式,以致有书评家称:“读完这书后,我真想跑到唐人街,一遇到中国人,便向他行个鞠躬礼。”
—摘自《生活的艺术》出版说明

THE ENJOYMENT OF LIVING
On Lying in Bed
By Lin Yutang
IT seems I am destined to become a market philosopher, but it can’t be helped. Philosophy generally seems to be the science of making simple things difficult to understand, but I can conceive of a philosophy which is the science of making difficult things simple. In spite of names like “materialism”, “humanism”, “transcendentalism”, “:pluralism”, and all the other longwinded “isms”, I contend that these systems are no deeper than my own philosophy, Life after all is made up of eating and sleeping, of meeting and saying good-by to friends, of reunions and farewell parties, of tears and laughter, of having a haircut once in two weeks, of watering a potted flower and watching one’s neighbor fall off his roof, and the dressing up of our notions concerning these simple phenomena of life in a kind of academic jargon is nothing but a trick to conceal either an extreme paucity or an extreme vagueness of ideas on the part of the university professors. Philosophy therefore has become a science by means of which we begin more and more to understand less and less about ourselves. What the philosophers have succeeded in is this: the more they talk about it, the more confused we become.
It is amazing how few people are conscious of the importance of the art of lying in bed, although actually in my opinion nine-tenths of the world’s most important discoveries, both scientific and philosophical, are come upon when the scientist or philosopher is curled up in bed at two or five o’clock in the morning. Some people lie in the daytime and others lie at night. Now by “lying” I mean at the same time physical and moral lying, for the two happen to coincide. I find that those people who agree with me in believing in lying in bed as one of the greatest pleasures of life are the honest men, while those who do not believe in lying in bed are liars and actually lie a lot in the daytime, morally and physically. Those who lie in the daytime are the moral uplifters, kindergarten teachers and readers ofAesop’s Fables, while those who frankly admit with me that a man ought to consciously cultivate the art of lying in bed are the honest men who prefer to read stories without a moral like Alice in Wonderland.

Now what is the significance of lying in bed, physically and spiritually? Physically, it means a retreat to oneself, shut up from the outside world, when one assumes the physical posture most conducive to rest and peace and contemplation. There is a certain proper and luxurious way of lying in bed. Confucius, that great artist of life, “never lay straight” in bed “like a corpse,” but always curled up on one side. I believe one of the greatest pleasures of life is to curl up one’s legs in bed. The posture of the arms is also very important, in order to reach the greatest degree of aesthetic pleasure and mental power. I believe the best posture is not lying flat on the bed, but being upholstered with big soft pillows at an angle of thirty degrees with either one arm or both arms placed behind the back of one’s head. In this posture any poet can write immortal poetry, any philosopher can revolutionize human thought, and any scientist can make epoch-making discoveries.
THE ENJOYMENT OF NATURE
Paradise Lost?
By Lin Yutang
IT is a curious thing that among the myriad creations on this planet, while the entire plant life is deprived from taking any attitude toward Nature and practically all animals can also have no “attitude” to speak of, there should be a creature called man who is both self-conscious and conscious of his surroundings and who can therefore take an attitude toward it. Man’s intelligence begins to question the universe, to explore its secrets and to find out its meaning. There are both a scientific and a moral attitude toward the universe. The scientific man is interested in finding out the chemical composition of the inside and crust of the earth upon which he lives, the thickness of the atmosphere surrounding it, the quantity and nature of cosmic rays dashing about on the top layers of the atmosphere, the formation of its hills and rocks, and the law governing life in general. This scientific interest has a relationship to the moral attitude, but in itself it is a puredesire to know and to explore. The moral attitude, on the other hand, varies a great deal, being sometimes one of harmony with nature, sometimes one of conquest and subjugation, or one of control and utilization, and sometimes one of supercilious contempt. This last attitude of supercilious contempt toward our own planet is a very curious product of civilization and of certain religions in particular. It springs from the fiction of the “Lost Paradise,” which, strange to say, is pretty generally accepted as being true today, as a result of a primitive religious tradition.
It is amazing that no one ever questions the truth of the story of a lost Paradise. How beautiful, after all, was the Garden of Eden, and how ugly, after all, is the present physical universe? Have flowers ceased to bloom since Eve and Adam sinned? Has God cursed the apple tree and forbidden it to bear fruit because one man sinned, or has He decided that its blossoms should be made of duller or paler colors? Have orioles and nightingales and skylarks ceased to sing? Is there no snow upon the mountain tops and are there no reflections in the lakes? Are there no rosy sunsets today and no rainbows and no haze nestling over villages, and are there no falling cataracts and gurgling streams and shady trees? Who therefore invented the myth that the “Paradise” was “lost” and that today we are living in an ugly universe? We are indeed ungrateful spoiled children of God.
THE ENJOYMENT OF CULTURE
Good Taste in Knowledge
By Lin Yutang
THE aim of education or culture is merely the development of good taste in knowledge and good form in conduct. The cultured man or the ideal educated man is not necessarily one who is well-read or learned, but one who likes and dislikes the right things. To know what to love and what to hate is to have taste in knowledge. I have met such persons, and found that there was no topic that might come up in the course of the conversation concerning which they did not have some facts or figures to produce, but whose points of view were deplorable. Such persons have erudition, but no discernment, or taste. Erudition is a mere matter of cramming of facts or information, while taste or discernment is a matter of cramming of artistic judgment. In speaking of a scholar, the Chinese generally distinguish between a man’s scholarship, conduct, and taste or discernment. This is particularly so with regard to historians; a book of history may be written with the most fastidious scholarship, yet be totally lacking in insight or discernment, and in the judgment or interpretation of persons and events in history, the author may show no originality or depth of understanding. Such a

person, we say, has no taste in knowledge. To be well-informed,
or to accumulate facts and details, is the easiest of all things.
There are many facts in a given historical period that can be easily crammed into our mind, but discernment in the selection of significant facts is a vastly more difficult thing and depends upon one’s point of view.
An educated man, therefore, is one who has the right loves and hatreds. This we call taste, and with taste comes charm. Now to have taste or discernment requires a capacity for thinking things through to the bottom, an independence of judgment, and an unwillingness to be bulldozed by any form of humbug, social, political, literary, artistic, or academic. There is no doubt that we are surrounded in our adult life with a wealth of humbugs: fame humbugs, wealth humbugs, patriotic humbugs, political humbugs, religious humbugs and humbug poets, humbug artists, humbug dictators and humbug psychologists. When a psychoanalyst tells us that the performing of the functions of the bowels during childhood has a definite connection with ambition and aggressiveness and sense of duty in one’s later life, or that constipation leads to stinginess of character, all that a man with taste can do is to feel amused. When a man is wrong, he is wrong, and there is no need for one to be impressed and overawed by a great name or by the number of books that he has read and we haven’t.

读懂了林语堂,你就懂了中西文化的精髓……

Education is one of the key words of our time. A man without an education, many of us believe, is an unfortunate victim of the adverse circumstances, deprived of one of the greatest twentieth-century opportunities.
==============================
Lesson 1 A puma at large

1. Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.
2. When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously.
3. However, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar.
4. The hunt for the puma began in a small village where a woman picking blackberries saw ‘a large cat’ only five yards away from her.
a. It immediately ran away when she saw it, and experts confirmed that a puma will not attack a human being unless it is cornered.
5. The search proved difficult, for the puma was often observed at one place in the morning and at another place twenty miles away in the evening.
a. Wherever it went, it left behind it a trail of dead deer and small animals like rabbits.
b. Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes.
c. Several people complained of ‘cat-like noises’ at night and a businessman on a fishing trip saw the puma up a tree.
6. The experts were now fully convinced that the animal was a puma, but where had it come from?
7. As no pumas had been reported missing from any zoo in the country, this one must have been in the possession of a private collector and somehow managed to escape.
8. The hunt went on for several weeks, but the puma was not caught.
9. It is disturbing to think that a dangerous wild animal is still at large in the quiet countryside.

1. Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.
2. When reports came into London Zoo, they were not taken seriously.
3. As the evidence began to accumulate, experts felt obliged to investigate.
4. The hunt for the puma began in a small village.
5. It immediately ran away when she saw it, and experts confirmed that a puma will not attack a human being unless it is cornered.
6. The search proved difficult.
7. Wherever it went, it left behind it a trail of dead deer and small animals.
8. Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes.
9. Several people complained of ‘cat-like noises’ at night and a businessman saw the puma up a tree.
10. The experts were now fully convinced that the animal was a puma, but where had it come from?
11. This one must have been in the possession of a private collector.
12. The hunt went on for several weeks, but the puma was not caught.
13. It is disturbing to think that a dangerous wild animal is still at large.

NCE401

Lesson 1 Finding fossil man

  1. We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.
  2. But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write.
  3. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas—-legends handed down from one generation of storytellers to another.
    1. These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago, but none could write down what they did.
  4. Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors [of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands] came from.
  5. The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesia about 2,000 years ago.
  6. But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten.
  7. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first ‘modern men’ came from.
    1. { help ~ sb (to) do sth:
      We also use help with an object and an infinitive with or without to:
      Jack is helping me to tidy my CDs. or Jack is helping me tidy my CDs.}
  8. Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds.
    1. They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away.
  9. Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained [when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace].

1.        We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East.
2.        But there are some parts of the world where people cannot write.
3.        The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas—-legends handed down.
a.        These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations who lived long ago.
4.        Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors came from.
5.        The sagas explain that some of them came from Indonesia about 2,000 years ago.
6.        But the first people lived so long ago that their sagas are forgotten.
7.        So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first ‘modern men’ came from.
8.        Fortunately, ancient men made tools of stone.
a.        They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away.
9.        Stone does not decay, and so the tools have remained.