A Brief introduction to Translation
I. Definition 翻译的定义
Translation, speaking, implies rendering from one language into another of something written or spoken. It is, essentially the faithful representation, in one language of what is written or spoken in another. It is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL-the source language) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL-target language).
II. Qualifications of a translator 翻译者必备的素质
1) A translator must be well acquainted with the source language.
We are inclined to feel too confident of our comprehension when we are reading foreign literary works. We think we know it from A to Z, yet, when we start translating it we find it difficult and there are many points misunderstood. We are playing the fool with ourselves because of careless reading, Therefore, translation serves as the best possible approach to the study of foreign languages.
2) A translator must be well acquainted with the target language.
Let’s take Yan Fu for instance: When Yan Fu, a famous translator in the Qing Dynasty, was translating “Evolution and Ethics and other Essays”, the title turned out to be the crux（症结）that caused him to cudgel his brains （绞尽脑汁）day and night and look pale for it. His wife worried very much representation of the title for quite time and eventually had it translated into《天演论》which has since deserved high praise up till now.
3) A translator must be armed with necessary professional knowledge.
4) A translator must be armed with the ability to live his part.
As famous play writer Maryann pointed out: “a translator must enter into the spirit of character (regard himself as one that plays a role in a play). That is to say, he seems
1. present at the very spot.（亲临其境）
2. involved in the very occurrence.（亲历其事）
3. witnessing the very parties concerned.（亲睹其人）
4. interating the very utterances.（亲道其法）
5. experiencing the very joy and annoy.（亲尝其甘，亲领其苦）
6. sharing the very weal and woe.（亲享其福，亲受其哀）
7. partaking of the glee and grief.（亲得其乐，亲感其悲）
5) A translator must be armed with the excellent ability of expressiveness and vivid imagination.
“Toiling yourself and endure hardship for obtaining a well-chosen word” just as the famous poet Du Fu did “Never give up until an amazing poetic masterpiece is gained”. （“为求一字稳，耐得五更寒”，象诗圣杜甫那样具有“语不惊人死不休”得精神与毅力）
III. Criteria of Translation 翻译的标准
Speaking of criteria of translation, as early as in the Tang Dynasty, the learned Monk Xuan Zhuang designed criteria of translation with emphasis placed on accuracy and general knowledge. In the Qing Dynasty, Yan Fu established a three character standard in translation：“信” faithfulness,“达”expressiveness and “雅”elegance, which are similar to “triness” by Herbert Rotheinstein（赫伯特·罗森斯坦）。Faithfulness, expressiveness and gracefulness which are considered the golden rule（金科玉律）in the field of translation.
After the May 4 th Movement, Lu Xun proposed: faithfulness“信”and smoothness“顺”as the criteria of translation. Shortly after the birth of New China, quite a lot of translators put forward various criteria, such as“忠实”、“通顺”、“准确”、流畅，重神韵而不是行貌（沈雁冰），“神似”与“形似”（许渊冲）and so on …
Still, some people made diverse interpretations to Yan Fu’s three-character criteria of translation as: “信”— being faithful “达”— being explicit “雅”— elegant in words
Which is different from Yan’s own definition: “信”— 达旨（将原文说明） “达”— 前后引衬，以显其意
IV. Methods of Translation 翻译的方法
In translation from English into Chinese, the principal methods used are: 1. Literal translation (metaphase) 2. Literal translation (paraphrase)
3. Transliteration (translation according to pronunciation)
The last one, however, is scarcely used unless it is absolutely necessary. Transliteration is mainly used in translating proper nouns, such as names of persons, places, scientific terms and etc. Whether a translation will be faithful to be the original in all the aspects depends on the possibility of finding the closest, the most natural equivalence（为原文在文体上找到最切近、最自然的对等语）depends on to a great extent a good command of the transformation of the key sentence and the choice of surface structure by a translator （在很大程度上取决于译者能否准确地掌握核心句的转化以及对表层形式的选择）.
a belt-tightening 勒紧裤带的政策
a wait-and-see attitude 等着瞧的态度
crack the case 破案
thirst to learn 渴望学习
令人心碎的 使人膛目的 勒紧裤带的政策 等着瞧的态度 破案 渴望学习
These examples are comparatively ideal sentence with great affinity, which can be translated by way of metaphase.
eat (swallow) the leek lie on one’s back kiss-me （吃芹菜）→ 忍受耻辱 （躺在背上）→ 仰卧 （吻我）（野生）→ 三色紫罗兰
kiss-me-quick see with half an eye have a cigar forget-me-not （快来吻我吧）→ 额发 （睁一只眼，闭一只眼）→ 一望便知 （请抽烟！）→ 你好！ （不要忘记我）→ 勿忘我 V. PRACTICE: 1. He bent solely upon profit. A. Surface：他只屈身于利润之前。 B. Shallow：只有利润才使他低头。 C. Deep：他惟利是图。 2. We are here today and gone tomorrow. A. Surface：我今天在这里，明天就到别处了。 B. Shallow：今日在世，明日辞世（死去）。 C. Deep：人生朝露。 3. John is tall like I am the queen of Sheba. A. Surface：约翰高得像是示巴皇后。 B. Shallow：约翰高的话，我就是示巴皇后。 C. Deep：要说约翰个头高，没那回事。 Translation C, however, not only breakes the crust of the original, but gains an insight into the deep structure through the surface structure. That’s to say when essence（内容）is in contradiction with form（形式）in translation and to harmonize the two, essence should be stressed.（在神与形矛盾而又无法同一时，应重神似，有时不得不牺牲形式） 4. Their accent couldn’t fool a native speaker. 当地人一听口音，就知道他们是外地人。 5. Truth lies at the bottom of the decanter（酒瓶）. 酒后露真言。 6. Darkness released him from his last restraints. 一到天黑，他就原形毕露。 7. How much did you suffer? “Plenty,” the old man said. —The Old Man and Sea “你吃了多少苦头？” “一言难尽。 ”老头说。 —《老人与海》 8. How many winter days have I seen him, standing blue-nosed in the snow and east wind! 在许多个冬日我都看见他，鼻子冻得发紫，站在飞雪和寒风中。
9. The thought that Huck might have failed was intolerable, agonizing.
（我们）就难以忍受，痛苦不堪。 VI. The process of Translation 翻译的步骤 A formal translation must be completed through five steps: 1. Preparation 2. analysis & understanding of the original 3. expression in target language 准备 分析与吃透原文 表达
4. proofreading 5. finalization 校正 定稿
● Preparation implies that we need to lay our hands on the reference materials which are relevant to the works.
● Comprehension is the key step of a translation; therefore, a translator must read the original time and again.
1) Glancing (skimming) over the original text you are going to translate.
2) Consulting your dictionary to make sure the exact meaning and implication of the new words found in original text through the first reading and the contextual relationship.
3) The third reading of the original should be emphasized on the understanding of the author’s ideological content, artistic quality, writing technique and style.
*linguistic analysis in combination with logical analysis of the original.
*The process of comprehension is that of unity between thinking in source language and that in target language *Penetration into the artistic conception of the original through the linguistic form and crust.
● Expression implies the change of the original from one language into another. This depends on how well you digest the original and how good your accomplishment of the target language are.
Every Chinese character should be well-chosen, every sentence well-organized and every paragraph carefully polished.
The English speaking people are proud of the compactness（严谨）of their language, while we Chinese are proud of the conciseness（简洁）of our mother tongue.
English syntax（句法）emphasizes on hypotaxis “形合” which means that clauses, sentences, even parts of phrases are connected by connectives（连接词）. Thus, English sentence structure is well-knit.
Unlike English, Chinese language is stressed on parataxis（意合）which means that sentences and the various parts of them are joined by meaning instead of connectives.
VII. Contextual Relationship
The following linguistic terms are of some importance in the understanding of this aspect.
1. Syntactic marking: The marked worked words that determine the specific meaning of a word.
2. Semotactic marking: The collocation and the relationship of the juxtaposed words（紧邻相连的词）governs the specific meaning a word.
3. Referential clusters: All those words that mean a great help to understanding and judging the specific meaning of a word.
● If when I tell you, dearest dear, that your agony is over, and that I have come here to take you from it, and that we go to England to be at peace and at rest, I cause you to think of your useful life laid waste, and of our native France so wicked to you, weep for it, weep for it!
亲爱的宝贝儿，我要告诉你，你的痛苦已经结束，我来此把你带出海，同往英格兰共享人间 清平，这会（如果这样做）使你想起你那虚度的年华，想起你的故土法兰西对你如此不公。 （倘若果真如此），（那么）亲爱的，你就哭吧，尽情的哭吧！
With the help“倘若果真如此”，“那么”，“如果这样做，……那么”，the logical relationship of the context is clearly
shown in the translation.
*But the actual achievement of this campaign, which is still misunderstood, should never be underestimated. It brought about the first defeat of a German army in the Second World War.
The difference shown in words of the two languages lies in the following aspects: English words are characteristic of a great vacillation（游移性）and flexibility（灵活性与可塑性）；the meaning of a word may range widely and depends much on the contextual relationship as is said “Words do not have meaning, people have meaning for words（词本无义，义随人生）”.
Consequently, we sometimes find it difficult to make appropriate adaptations from English into Chinese words and Yan Fu put it “A new term established, ten days or a month spent.”
Let’s start with the word “identity”.
The word “identity” is elucidated（阐明）in dictionary as follows: ● sameness of essential or generic character in different instance;
● sameness in all that constitutes the objective reality of a thing; oneness; ● thecondition of being the same with something described or asserted;
However, in the modem English, the meaning of “identity” varies with the changing contexts.
1. He also had been demanding that all Irishmen living in Britain be required to carry identity cards. 当时，他还一直在要求所有居住在不列颠的爱尔兰人必须携带身份证。
2. Their sexual identity, like that of all women competitors, had been officially confined by the Olympic “femininity control clinic.”
3. Lee has again and again stressed the need for his tiny nation to develop its own Singaporean — as opposed to Chinese — identity.
4. The Europe Communists are in the middle of an identity crisis and are taking up the mask of a certain reformism 欧洲共产党人现处在党性转变的十字路口，她们现在正戴上某种改良主义的面具。 5. In Poland, loyalty to the church became the only means of defending national identity. 在波兰，效忠教会成为保卫民族意识的唯一手段。
6. Hongkong thus enjoy the identity, the wealth and the trapping of a city-state-without a state’s responsibility for its long-range destiny.
7. A young nation struggling to establish its identity produced leaders, such as Jefferson and Jackson, dedicated to a democratic process which, however, excluded Indians and blacks. 年轻的美国在奋力确定国家体制之际，产生了诸如杰弗逊和杰克逊那样的领袖人物，他们致力于民主制度的建立，却排斥印度人和黑人。
8. But investigators say they have no clues to the whereabouts of the alleged accomplices and are not even certain of their identities.
9. Since I had said good-bye to him on Thursday, we had gone through greater emotions than any mystery story could provide. The unusual thing about this thriller was that the villain changed his identity. 自从星期四向他告别之后，我们经历了比任何惊险小说所描写的都更为激动人心的场面，这种经历的异乎寻常
10. But politics would be his life from then on. In politics, and politics alone, he would find his identity. 从那时起，政治成为他的生命，他打算在政治生涯中，也只打算在政治生涯中，确立其名声。
Note the different meanings “story” shares in the different contexts:
1. This war is becomingthe most important story of his generation.（最重要的事件） 2. It is quiteanother story now.（另一回事）
3. Last December, the Post first reported that probes were being made in each of those cities, but officials refused toconfirm the story.（证实这件事）
4. Some reporters who were not included in the sessionbroke the story. 5. He’ll be very happy if that storyholds up.
6. Thestory about him became smaller and by and by faded out from the American television. 7. The Rita Hay worth story is one of the saddest. 8. A young man came to Scott’s office with a story. 9. Tell me the story of what happened to you.
10. Thestory of the opera was printed in the program.
Word Discrimination & Translation
Generally speaking, almost all of English words share meanings in three aspects. 1. The structural meaning 结构意义 2. The referential meaning 指示意义 3. The situational meaning 语境意义
Since an English word may share a lot of meaning such as extended meaning（引申意义）, intentional meaning（内含意义）, connotative meaning（内涵意义）and denotative meaning（外延意义), the most reliable way is to distinguish by means of situational meaning.
Please weigh the various meaning of “green” collocated with different words.
a green eye
a green wound
a green winter
green with envy
green as grass
in the green wood (tree)
嫉妒的 未愈合的伤口 温暖的冬天 嫩玉米穗，甜玉米 青饲料作物 青绿饲料 具有高超种植花木蔬菜技能的 生手 绿茶 十分嫉妒 园艺技能 幼稚，无经验 处于佳境
Many English words possess synonyms which express more or less the same meaning. For example: wife—woman, better half, helpmate, helpmeet, grey mare and squaw.
The same is true with Chinese
Similarly, there are a lot of synonyms to “laugh” as follows:
微笑 咧嘴而笑，露齿笑 暗笑，轻声笑 痴笑，吃吃地笑 哈哈大笑 傻笑，嗤嗤地笑 嬉皮笑脸地笑 哄笑，放声大笑 尖声笑，咯咯地笑狂笑 All these words share the meaning of “laugh”, but they are different from one another in manner, volume, degree, mood, connotation, passion, and appeal（方式，音量，程度，心情，涵义，感情，以及感染力）.
*To have one’s translation faithful to the original in accuracy, one must be well acquainted with the shades of difference of synonyms.
Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the shades of difference of the underlined words.
1. The child cried himself to sleep. 那孩子哭着哭着就睡着了。 2. She sobbed herself to sleep. 她抽抽咽咽地睡着了。
3. The girls wept with joy after their volleyball team won. 女排获胜后，姑娘们流下了高兴的热泪。
4. Her eyes are always weeping for the loss of her beauty. 因为美貌不在，她的眼里总是黯然神伤。 5. She wept copiously over the loss of her lover. 心上人离她而去，她悲痛欲绝。
6. A child your age shouldn’t sit about blubbering over a lost toy.
像你这么大（岁数）的小孩，不应该因为丢了玩具，就坐在地上哭哭啼啼。 7. There she collects the force of female lungs, sighs, sobs and passions. 她极尽女性之能事，长吁短叹，泣不成声，悲愤不已。
8. The films ends with the heroine sobbing desperately as her lover walks away resolutely. 影片结尾，当她的心上人义无返顾地远去时，女主人公悲痛欲绝，伤心而泣。
9. The headmaster said to her, “If you have something to say, have it out clearly. It’s no use weeping and wailing endlessly.” 校长对她说：“你要是有什么，明明白白地说出来吧。你这样无休止地哭哭啼啼有什么用呢？” 10. The wind was wailing in the woods. 风在树林中呼啸。
Distinguish the shades of meaning of the underlined words or phrases and translate the sentences into proper Chinese.
1. Come to the theater with me and laugh off your worries. 我们一起去剧院，来它个一笑解千愁。
2. At this moment another smile of deep meaning passed between her and her.
3. Spring awakened, all nature smiled. 春回大地，万物复苏。
4. The wasters of a brook are limpid and laughing in the summer’s sun. 夏日的阳光下，小溪清清，流水淙淙。
5. He chuckled at himself for having worn his wife’s shirt. 看到自己错穿了妻子的衬衫，他不禁哑然失笑。
6. The girls couldn’t stop giggling when the boy answered that Cao Cao was an outstanding tennis player. 当这个男孩回答曹操是个杰出的网球运动员时，姑娘们吃吃地笑个不停。 7. Why do teenage girls giggle so much? 为什么十几岁的女孩那么喜欢傻笑？
8. Father used to chortle over such funny jokes. 父亲以前一听到这样的笑话，总会哈哈大笑。
9. We whisper, and hint, and chuckle, and grin at a brother’s shame.
10. Since the famous portrait, the Mona Lisa was painted people have been fascinated by the mysterious smile on the face and by the strange background of fantastic rocks.
Choice of Words
English words are characteristic of polysemy and polysemous words often share more than one part of ten share more than one part of speech, which takes time to determine the fixed meaning and its given part of speech in the certain context, and even more time to makes final decision of the Chinese equivalence to the original word. After the through analysis of the original syntax and the general idea of the original text, choice of words becomes the determining factor to a good translation.
The word “and” seems easy enough, the actual practice, however, is very different from what as one might imagine.
1. War and Peace 战争与和平
2. eat and drink 吃吃喝喝
3. to work arduously and skillfully 苦干加巧干
4. The girls came over talking and laughing 姑娘们有说有笑（又说又笑）地走过来。 5. She is the Party Secretary and manager as well. 她是党委书记兼经理。
6. It was not easy to carry such a heavy load, and during the dog days. 扛这么重的东西很不容易，更何况这么热的天呢。 7. The earth rotates and it revolves. 地球一面自转，一面公转。
8. The sun came out and the grass dried. 日出草干
9. Reading the text many times and you will be able to recite it. 课文多读几遍，你就会背了
10. He came here by bike and I walked here.
11. He did it, and did it well. 他做了，而且做得不错。
12. They talked and talked until small hours. 他们谈啊谈啊，一直谈到次日凌晨。 13. many and many a time. 三番五次，许多次。 14. They walked two and two. 他们成双成对走过。
15. There are men and men (booksand books). 各式各样的人（书）
To have every word well expressed in Chinese, one must acquaint himself with rhetoric, especially the passive rhetoric whose essential work is to have words well-chosen which is just in agreement with the key link of expression in translation. Whether a word is well-chosen affects greatly the accuracy of expression. For example:
善意 贤妻 慈母 真金 良师 好友 高邻 好心 褒义 丰年 劲敌，匹敌 善举，善事 优点，长处 尽职的丈夫 美貌
The following is designed to practice your translation technique on the choice of words. Work carefully, try to vary your diction in the Chinese version.
Although schoolmistresses letters are to be trusted no more nor less than churchyard epitaphs, yet as it sometimes happens that a person departs this life, who is really deserving of all the praises the stone-cutter carves over his bones; who is a good Christian, a good parent, child, wife or husband; who actually does leave a disconsolate family to mourn his less; so academies of the male and female sex it occurs every now and then, that then pupil is fully worthy of the praises bestowed by the disinterested instructor.
Translation should turn out to be faithful the original but not rigid, flexible but not excessive. 翻译应该是忠实而不呆板，灵活而不过分。
A good translation, generally speaking, is a bit longer than the original (it does not necessarily mean that good translation must be longer than the original) primarily because translation must faithfully turn the obvious form of the original
language into target language, and at the same time, must convey what implied in the original context, especially that closely connected with the background of the original culture and history in the target language.
The difficulties to readers of translation lie in what’s implied in the original, translator should make some adaptations in the light of specific conditions to enable readers to understand more easily.
The words added in translation must be indispensable (absolutely necessary) either syntactically or semantically.
I. Words supplied for syntactic construction
II. Words supplied for semantic completion
When anyone among the people breaks the law, he too should be punished, imprisoned or even sentenced to death.
For actually the earth had no roads to begin with, but when many men pass one way, a road is made.
3. You got a prejudice all right—against a race that’s black. That’s why I called you white racist that night. But when you deal with a black person, I don’t feel any bad vices.
4. The V sign itself is a challenge, for the famous Churchillian invention that used to mean Allied Victory is no longer valid. Instead of having to do with War, V today is made to mean peace.
V 形手势(语义性增补）本身就是一种挑战。因为丘吉尔的这个著名的发明，当年（语义性增补）曾作为盟国胜利的标志。这层意思现已不复存在，今天（修辞性重复）V 形手 势语是被用来表示和平。
5. My audiences vary from tens to thousands. I expected opposition but got hardly any. 我的听众从几十人到几千人不等（修饰性增补），我希望有持有异议的人站起来跟我辩论（语义性增补），但几乎没有遇到过（结构性增补） 。
6. But, if this world is not merely a bad joke, life a vulgar flare amid the cool radiance of the stars, and existence an empty laugh braying across the mysteries; if there intimations of something behind and behind are not evil humor born of madden us; if, in a word, beauty means something, yet we must not seek to interpret the meaning.
—— From New Concept English 《新概念英语》 (Book 4) lesson 29
7. What is feared as failure in American society, is, above all, aloneness, And aloneness is terrifying because it means that there is no one, no group, no approved cause to submit to.
8. Long, anxious days passed, during which I hope that Dave would see that white was not always white nor black always totally black. Time was running out; his decision could not be indefinitely postponed.
III. Supply overlapping words or numerals to express the plural form of nouns.
Unlike the English language which has the change of plural form of nouns as well as that of verb tenses, the Chinese language has no change of plural form. It is usually expressed by supplying overlapping words or numerals, such as“朵朵鲜花”，“百花齐放”，“阵阵寒风”，“徐徐凉风”，“微风习习”，“们”，“诸位”，“大家”，“大伙”。
songs flowers ripples cheers a chilly wind a murmuring stream (book) deadly still galloping horses a golden opportunity throughout ages 阵阵歌声 鲜花朵朵 层层涟漪 阵阵喝彩 凉风习习 淙淙流水 万籁俱寂 万马奔腾 天赐良机 千秋万代
Even Homer sometimes nods. Flowers of all sorts are blooming in a riot of color. The audience left one after another. In spring, a gentle wind rippled the tranquil lake. 智者千里，必有一失。 百花争艳，万紫千红。 听众鱼贯而出。 风乍起，吹皱一池春水。
Relative & Connectives （关系词与连接词的翻译）
Relatives include relative pronouns and relative adverbs, such as who, whom, whose, that, which, what, when, where, why and how used to connect main clause and subordinate clauses. White connectives include coordinate and subordinate conjunctions, such as and, or, but, yet, so, however, as well as, (n)either … (n)or …, when, while, as, since, until, so … that, unless, lest and so on.
1. All was cleared up some time later when news came from a distant place that an earthquake was felt the very day the little copper ball fell.
2. When I try to understand what it is that prevent so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect, it seems to me that there are two causes, of which one goes much deeper than the other.
为什么如此众多的美国人不能如想象中那样幸福呢？我认为原因有二，而两个原因之间又有深浅之分。 3. It has been a fine, golden autumn, a lovely farewell to those who would lose their youth, and some of them their lives, before the leaves turned again in a peacetime fall.
4. It is flattering to believe that they are too profound to be expressed so clearly that all who run may read, and very naturally it does not occur to such writers that the fault is with their own minds which have not the faculty of precise
认为自己的思想深奥，不可能表达得很清楚并让任何人都能理解，这是一种虚荣的念头。这样的作家当然不会想到，问题还是出在自己脑子缺乏精确思考的能力。 5. It was what sentimentalists，who deal in very big words，call a yearning after the ideal，and simply means that woman are not satisfied until they have husbands and children on whom they may center affections, which are spent elsewhere, as it were, in small change. (W. Thackeray: Vanity Fair)
to make merry a laughing stock in one’s dream land an outsider all skin and bones/skinny/bony It never rains but pour to seethrough the trickery to see through at a glance to fish in troubled waters to do something by halve save one’s face;（lose face 丢脸） a heart of stone/stone—hearted Strike while the iron is hot to spend money like water to go in at one ear and out at the other to seek truth fromfacts to want to grasp what is beyond one’s reach The more one tries to hide, the more one is exposed.
自立 说实话 倾盆大雨 一视同仁 同舟共济 镜花水月 火上加油 三心二意 一模一样 人山人海 欲速不达 字里行间 业精于勤 白纸黑字 一知半解 沽名钓誉
to stand on one’s own feet call a spade a spade It rains cats and dogs. fair field and no favour to be in the same boat moonshine in water to pour oil on the flames to be in two minds as alike as two peas a sea of faces haste makes waste to read between the lines practice makes perfect in black and white a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
to fish for compliments to wear one’s heart on one’s sleeves
一箭双雕；一举两得 谦受益，满招损 闯祸 开夜车 对牛弹琴 害群之马 不伦不类 雨后春笋 掌上明珠 乱七八糟 千载难逢
进退两难，进退维谷 骑墙 伤感情 见世面 智穷才尽
to spare no effort (to leave no stone unturned) to kill two birds with one stone Pride goes before fall a bull in a china shop to burn the midnight oil to cast pearls to the swine a black sheep
neither fish nor flesh
to spring up like mushrooms the apple of one’s eye to be at sixes and sevens once in a blue moon
on the horns of a dilemma to sit on the fence
to wound one’s feelings to see the world at one’s wits end
Many kiss a baby for the nurse’s sake.
ADDITIONAL READING MATERIALS
1. When I was nine years old living in a small town in North Carolina I found an ad for selling greeting cards in the back of a children’s magazine. I though to myself, I can do this, I begged my mother to let me send for the kit. Two weeks later when the kit arrived, I ripped off the brown paper wrapper, grabbed the cards and dashed from the house. Three hours later, I returned home with no card and a pocket full of money proclaiming. “Mama, all the people couldn’t wait to buy my cards!”. A salesperson was born.
2. When I was twelve years old, my father took me to see Zig Ziegler. I remember sitting in that dark auditorium listening to Mr. Zigler raise everyone’s up to the ceiling. I left there feeling like I could do anything. When we got to the car, I turned to my father and said, “Dad, I want to make people feel like that.” My father asked me what I meant. “I want to be a motivational speaker just like Mr. Zigler,” I replied. A dream was born.
3. Recently, I began pursuing my dream of motivating other. After a four-year relationship with a major fortune 100 company beginning as a salestrainer and ending as a regional sales manager, I left the company at the height of my career. Many people were astounded that I would leave after earning a six-figure income. And they asked why I would risk everything for a dream.
4. I made my decision to start my own company and leave my secure position after attending a regional sales meeting. The vice-president of our company delivered a speed that changed my life. He asked us,” If a genie would grant you three wishes what would they be?” After giving us a moment to write down the three wishes, he then asked us, “Why do you need a genie?” I would never forget the empowerment I felt at that moment.
Straw Hat In The Wind
Mama, that summer, on the way to 1) Klitsemi, my straw hat flew down the mountains. Mama, do you remember, the old straw hat you gave to me? I lost that hat long ago, it flew to the 2) foggy canyon. Mama, I wonder what happened to that old straw hat which fell down the mountain-side and 3) whirled out of my reach like your heart. Suddenly that wind came up, stealing my hat from me. 4) Swirling gust of wind blew it higher, and higher … Mama, that old straw hat was the only one I really love. But I lost it, no one could bring it back, like the life you give me.
Mama, that summer, on the way to Klitsemi, I lost my straw hat. The 5) lilies along the road 6) wilted. And under that straw hat, the 7) crickets wept every night … 译文
2）foggy adj. 有雾的，起雾的 3）whirl v. 回旋，旋转 4）swirl v. 旋涡，回旋 5）lily n. 百合，百合花 6）wilt v. 枯萎，凋谢 7）cricket n. 蟋蟀
By Samuel Erman
1. Youth is not a time of life, it is a state of mind, it is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips and supple knees, it is a matter of the will, a quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions, it is the freshness of the deep spring of life.
2. Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. This often exits in a man of 60 more than a boy of 20. Nobody grows merely by a number of years, we grow old by deserting our idea.
3. Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, fear, self-distrust bows the heart and turns the spirit back to dust.
4. Whether 60 or 16, there is in every human being’s heart the lure of wonders, the unfailing childlike appetite of what’s next and the joy of the game of living. In the center of your heart and my heart thereis a wireless station: so long as it
receives messages of beauty, hope, cheer, courage and power from the infinite, so long as you are young.
5. When the aerials are down, and your spirit is covered with snows of cynicism and the ice of pessimism. Then you’ve grown old, even at 20, but as long as your aerials are up to catch waves of optimism, there’s hope you may die young at 80.
2．它是生命之源勃勃生机的涌泉。青春意味着战胜懦弱的那股大丈夫气慨和摈弃安逸的那种冒险精神。往往一个60 岁的老者比一个20 岁的青年更多一点这种劲头。人老不仅仅是岁月流逝所致，更主要的是懒惰、不思进取的结果。
4．无论是 60 岁还是 16 岁，你需要保持永不衰竭的好奇心，永不熄灭的孩提般求知的渴望和追求事业成功的欢乐与热情。在你我的心底，都有一座无线电台；它能在多长时间里接收到人间万物传递来的美好、希望、欢乐、鼓舞和力量信息，你就会年轻多长时间。
Be a Queen
By Oprah Winfrey
Be a queen. Dare to be different. Be a pioncer. Be a leader. Be the kind of woman who in the face of diversity will continue to embrace life and walk fearlessly toward the challenge. Take it on! Be a truth seeker and rule your domain, whatever it is – your home, your office, your family – with a loving heart. Be a queen. Be tender. Continue to give birth to new ideas and rejoice in your womanhood … My prayer is that we will stop wasting time being mundane and mediocre … It doesn’t matter what you’ve been through, where you come from, who your parents are – nor your social or economic status. None of that matters. What matters is how you choose to love, how you choose to express that love through your work through your family, through what you have to give to the world. Be a queen, Own your power and your glory!
● Bethe kind of woman who in the face of diversity will continue to embrace life and walk fearlessly toward the challenge.
● Be a truth seeker and rule your domain.
● We will stop wasting time being mundane and mediocre.
● What matters is how you choose to love, how you choose to express that love through your workthrough your family, through what you have to give to the world.
Ode to October
By Russell Baker（拉塞尔·贝克尔）
Aside from a minor body of sentiment in favor of May, there is little disagreement that October is the best month of the year. It is the one month when man and nature are mist nearly in harmony. Temperatures, moderate in the daytime and invigorating by evening, are conducive to reflective thought, exhilaratingexercise, outdoor labor, charitable endeavor, courtship and pleasant romps with babies and small children.
October surpasses all the summer months by virtue of being the first in nearly half a year to clear the streets of college-age people. And it does so without diminishing the pleasure of life for the departed young. They are back at
school, marking new friendships and renewing old ones, and in October — blessed October — they are not yet haunted by prospects of failure.
There are few moments in life that bring husband and wife closer in reflective communion than the first October moment by a blazing hearth when they inhale the odor of mothballs in each other’s sweaters and agree it’s time they once again had a long talk. This cannot be enjoyed in November, December, January or February because most people get bored with making fires in the fireplace after the first few in October.
The physical beauty of October affects the most insensitive natures, if only subconsciously, with a heightened appreciation of esthetic satisfactions. You don’t see millions of people gaping from slowmoving automobiles to look at trees in January of March or even May.
No other month concludes with such dramatic charm and wit. In Halloween, October has come up withthe perfect way to end the unbeatable month. It is the ideal holiday, for it lasts only a few hours and requires very little preparation. Its ingredients are bright color, gaiety, noise and a suspension of disbelief that justifies persons of all ages behaving childishly for three or four hours, which is just about long enough.
Hail, October! March thou never wert, much less February.
From Reader’s Digest
十 月 颂
万岁，十月！汝非三月，更非二月。Halloween 注：万圣节前夕：Halloween 10 月 31 日
By Hal Borland
The January wind has a hundred voices. It can scream, it can bellow, it can whisper, and it can sing a lullaby. It can roar through the leafless oaks and shout down the hillside, and it can murmur in the white pines rooted among the granite ledges where lichen makes strange hieroglyphics. It can whistle down a chimney and set the hearth-flames to dancing. On a sunny day it can pause in a sheltered spot and breathe a promise of spring and violets. In the cold of a lonely night it can rattle the sash and stay there muttering of ice and snow-banks and deep-frozen ponds.
Sometimes the January wind seems to come from the farthest star in the outer darkness, so remote and so impersonal is its voice. That is the wind of a January dawn, in the half-light that trembles between day night. It is a wind that merely quivers the trees, its force sensed but not seen, a force that might almost hold back the day if it were so directed. Then the east brightens, and the wind relaxes —— the stars, its source, grown dim.
And sometimes the January wind is so intimate that you know it came only from the next hill, a little wind that
plays with leaves and puffs at chimney smoke and whistle like a little boy with puckered lips. It makes the little cedar trees quiver, as with delight. It shadow-boxes with the weather-vane. It tweaks an ear, and whispers laughing words about crocuses and daffodils, and nips the nose and dances off.
But you never know, until you hear its voice, which wind is here today. Or, more important, which will be here tomorrow.
一 月 的 风
ADog’s Eye View of Man (1)
If Man has benefited (1) immeasurably by his association (2) with the dog, what, you may ask, has the dog got out of it? His scroll (3) has, of course, been heavily charged with punishments: he has known the muzzle (4), the leash (5), and the tether; (6) he has suffered the indignities of the show bench (7), the tin can on the tail, the ribbon in the hair; his love life with the other sex of his species has been regulated by the frigid hand of authority, his digestion ruined by the macaroons (8) and marshmallows (9) of doting (10) women. The list of his woes (11) could be continued indefinitely. But he has also had his fun, for he has been privileged to live with and study at close range (12) they only creature with reason, the most unreasonable of creatures.
The dog has got more fun out of Man than Man has got out of the dog, for the clearly demonstrable reason that Man is the more laughable of the two animals. The dog has long been bemused (13) by the singular activities and the curious practices of men, cocking (14) his head inquiringly to one side, intently watching and listening to the strangest goings-on (15) in the world. He has seen men sing together and fight one another in the same evening. He has watched them go to bed when it is time to get up, and get up when it is time to go to bed. He has observed them destroying the soil in vast areas, and nurturing (16) it in small patches. He has stood by white men built strong and solid houses for rest and quiet, and the filled them with lights and bells and machinery. His sensitive nose, which can detect what cooking in the next township, has caught at one and the same time the bewildering smells of the hospital and the munitions factory (17). He has seen men raise up great cities to heaven and then blow them to hell.
[Selected from The Norton Reader]
1．詹姆斯瑟伯（1894—1961）：美国作家漫画家创作了大量的随笔小品文代表作有My Life and Hard Times, Men, Women and Dogs以及Fables for Our Times。本文便是一篇优秀的小品文作者巧妙地运用Abird’s view这个短语把 bird换成 dog。但题目让人耳目一新。
狗 瞰 人 类
A TRIBUTE TO THE DOG
By George Graham West
The best friend a man has in this world may turn against him and become his enemy. His son or daughter whom he has reared with loving care may prove ungrateful. Those who are nearest and dearest to us, those whom we trust with our happiness and our good name, may become traitors to their faith.
The money that a man has he may lose. It flies away from him, perhaps when he needs it most. A man’s reputation may be sacrificed in a moment of ill-considered action. The people who are prone to fall on their knees to do us honor when success is with us may be the first to throw the stone of malice when failure settles its cloud upon our heads. The one absolute, unselfish friend a man may have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous, is his dog.
A man’s dog stands by him in prosperity and in poverty, in health and in sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground when the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, if only he can be near his master’s side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to offer. He will lick the sores and wounds that come in the encounter with the roughness of the world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince.
When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches take wings and reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in its journey through the heavens. If fortune drives the master forth, an outcast in the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dog asks no higher privilege than that of accompanying him to guard him against danger, to fight against his enemies. And when the last scene of all comes and death takes its master in its embrace and the body is laid away in the cold ground, no matter if all other friends pursue their way, there by his graveside will the noble dog be found, his head between his paws, his eyes sad but open in alert watchfulness faithful and true even to death.
HOW TO GROW OLD
By Bertrand Russell
In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject, My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors, My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven, but my other three grandparents all lived to be over eighty. Of remoter ancestors I can only discover one who did not live to a great age, and he died of a disease which is now rare, namely, having his head cut off. A great grandmother of mine, who was a friend of Gibbon, lived to the age of ninety-two, and to her last day remained a terror to all her descendants, My maternal grandmother, after having mine children who survived, one who died in infancy, and many miscarriages, as soon as she became a widow devoted herself to woman’s higher education. She was one of the founders of Girton College, and worked hard at opening the medical profession of to women. She used to relate how she met in Italy an elderly gentleman who was looking very sad. She inquired the cause of his melancholy and he said that he had just parted from his two grandchildren. “Good gracious”, she exclaimed, “I have seventy-two grandchildren, and if I were sad each time I parted from one of them, I should have a dismal existence!” “Madre snaturale,” he replied. But speaking as one of the seventy-two, I prefer her recipe. After the age of eighty she found she had some difficulty in getting to sleep, so she habitually spent the hours from midnight to 3a.m. in reading popular science. I do not believe that she ever had time to notice that she was growing old. This, I think, is proper recipe for remaining young. If you have wide and keen interests and activities in which you can still be effective, you will have no reason to think about the merely statistical fact of the number of years you have already lived, still less of the probable brevity of your future.
 As regards health I have nothing useful to say since I have little experience of illness. I eat and drink whatever I like, and sleep when I cannot keep awake. I never do anything whatever on the ground that it is good for health, though in actual fact the things I like doing are mostly wholesome.
 Psychologically there are two dangers to be guarded against in old age. One of these is undue absorption in the past. It does not do to live in memories, in regrets for the good old days, or in sadness about friends who are dead. One’s thoughts must be directed to the future and to things about which there is something to be done. This is not always easy: one’s own past is gradually increasing weight. It is easy to think to oneself that one’s emotions used to be more vivid than they are, and one’s mind more keen. If this is true it should be forgotten, and if it is forgotten it will probably not be true.
 The other thing to be avoided is clinging to youth in the hope of sucking vigour from its vitality. When your children are grown up they want to live their own lives, and if you continue to be as interested in them as you were when they were young, you are likely to become a burden to them, unless they are unusually callous. I do not mean that one should be without interest in them, but one’s interest should becontemplative and, if possible, philanthropic, but not unduly emotional. Animals become indifferent to their young as soon as their young can look after themselves, but human beings, owing to the length of infancy, find this difficult.
 I think that a successful old age is easiest for those who have strong impersonal interests involving appropriate activities. It is in this sphere that long experience is really fruitful, and it is in this sphere that the wisdom born of experience can be exercised without being oppressive. It is no use telling grown-up children not to make mistakes, both because they will not believe you, and because mistakes are an essential part of education. But if you are one of those who are incapable of impersonal interests, you may find that your life will be empty unless you concern yourself with your children and grandchildren. In that case you must realize that while you can still render them material services, such
as making them an allowance or knitting them jumpers, you must not expect that they will enjoy your company.
 Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death. In the young there is a justification for this feeling. Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer. But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject and ignoble. The best way to overcome it — So at least it seems to me — is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life be comes increasingly merged in the universal life. An individual human existence should be like a river – small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past rocks and over waterfalls. Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being. The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue. And if , with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest will not be unwelcome. I should wish to die while still at work, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do and content in the thought that what was possible has been done.
［1］尽管题目是谈如何延年益寿，本文其实讨论的是如何不变老。这个话题在我这个年龄尤为重要，我的第一项建议是选择祖先要慎之又慎。虽然我的双亲很早就过世了，但我在选择其他祖先方面还是做得相当出色的。我的外祖父在67岁时就去世了，真可谓英年早逝啊！但我的祖父、祖母和外祖母都活到80多岁。至于再远一些的祖先，我只能说出一位 没活到高龄就死的，他死于当今罕见的一种疾病 —— 上断头台。我有位曾祖母 —— 是吉 本老先生的一位朋友 —— 活到了92岁，直到她去世的那一天还让她的儿孙们感到害怕。我的外祖母生过好多孩子，活下来九个，有一个夭折，还有过几次小产。她在守寡当初，便致力于妇女的高等教育事业。她是葛登学院的创始人之，为使妇女可以从事医疗事业而勤奋工作。她常和我们谈起她如何在意大利遇到一位上年纪的绅士，样子很悲伤，她问他为何悲伤，他说有两个孙子离开了他。一听这话，她大声说道：“天哪！我有72个孙儿，要是其中一个离我而去，我就得伤心一场，那我的日子还要不要过了！”听她这么一说，他便说：“不同寻常的母亲啊！”。作为她72个孙儿中的一位，我还是崇尚她的处世方法。80岁之后，她 开始出现失眠的情况。于是她常常从午夜到凌晨三点阅读生产资料书籍。我觉得她根本就腾不出时间去注意自己在一天天地衰老起来。我认为这正是保持年轻的正确方法。如果你有广泛浓厚的兴趣爱好，并且还能有效地参加许多活动的话，你就没有理由光从数字上去考虑问题，即活了多少岁数，更不会去考虑可能余年有限的事了。
Painting as a Pastime
By Winston S. Churchill
To have reached the age of 40 without even handling a brush, to have regarded the painting of pictures as a mystery, and then suddenly to find oneself plunged in the middle of a new interest with paints and palettes and canvases, and not to be discouraged by results, is an astonishing and enriching experience. I hope it may be shared by others.
For, to be really happy, one ought to have hobbies, and they must all be real. Best of all, and easiest to take up, are sketching and painting.
Painting is complete as a distraction. I know of nothing which, without exhausting the body, more entirely absorbs the mind. Whatever the worries of the hour or the threats of the future, once the picture has begun to flow along there is no room for them on the mental screen. They pass out into shadow and darkness. All one’s mental light become concentrated on the task.
Painting came to my rescue at a most trying time. when I left the Admiralty at the end of May 1915, I still remained a member of the Cabinet and of the War Council. In this position I knew everything and could do nothing. I had vehement convictions and small power to give effect to them. I had long hours of utterly unwonted leisure at a moment when every fiber of my being was inflamed to action.
And then, one Sunday in the country, some experiments with the children’s paintbox led me to procure the step was to begin. The palette gleamed with beads of color; fair and white rose the canvas; the empty brush hung poised, heavy with destiny, irresolute in the air. Very gingerly I mixed a little blue paint with a very small brush, and then with infinite precaution made a mark about as big as a bean upon the affronted snow-white shield.
At that moment a motorcar was heard in the drive, and from it there stepped the gifted wife of Sir John Lavery, the distinguished portrait painter. “Painting! But what are you hesitating about? Let me have a brush – the big one.” Splash into the turpentine, wallop into the blue and the white, frantic flourish on the palette — clean no longer — and then several large, fierce strokes on the absolutely cowering canvas. The spell was broken. The sickly inhibitions rolled away. I seized the largest brush and fell upon my victim with berserk fury. I have never felt any awe of a canvas since.
The River and the Swan
My special lady, dancer of life,
Come and go as you please
When you move with such ease
Hey, I’d like to own you,
But I won’t even try,
When free things are owned,
They always wither and die.
And I wouldn’t kill anything in you
For my image and pride.
I will not use love’s altar
For murder to hide.
我独一无二的女士啊，生命的舞娘， 你自如地来去 款款莲步轻移 嗨，多想拥有你， 但我决不尝试， 自由自在的精灵一旦被拥有， 就只会枯萎凋零。 你的一切我都不会忧虑戕害 因为那是我的冀望，我的骄傲。 我不会以爱为祭坛 在当中把杀机深藏。
I won’t try to won you,
Shoot you down from the sky,
When free things are owned
They just wither and die.
I won’t try to have you
Only for me …
Just know that I loveyou
And my love is free
我决不试着去拥有你， 将你从天空击落， 自由自在的精灵一旦被拥有 便只会枯萎凋零。 我决不试着拥有你 只是为了我的缘故…… 只要你明白我爱你， 我的爱无怨无悔。
So I’ll be the river,
Hey, you be the swan.
I’ll reflect your wings
As you cross the Sun.
When you go away,
That will be too soon,
I’ll still send you the sorrow
As you circle the Moon.
那么我愿成为河流 而你是那天鹅。 以倒影留住你的双翼 在你飞越了太阳的时候。 当你远去， 纵然再快， 我依然会把哀伤送去 当你绕着月亮飞翔时候。
I’ll follow my course Till I merge with the sea.
Just remember what I told you, You’re a special lady to me. 我奔流向前
But I didn’t try to own you, Shoot you down from the sky, When free things are owned, They just wither and die. I didn’t try to have you Only for me …
Just know that I love you And my love is free …
自由自在的精灵一旦被拥有， 便只会枯萎凋零。 我不曾试着去拥有你， 只是为了我的缘故…… 只要你明白我爱你， 我的爱无怨无悔……
Sung by Spice Girls
She used to be my only enemy and never let me free, Catching me in places that I know I shouldn’t be. Every other day I crossed the line, I didn’t mean to be so bad,
I never thought you would become the friend I never had.
Back then I didn’t know why, Why you were misunderstood, So now I see through your eyes, All that you did was love,
Mama I love you, Mama I care,
Mama I love you, Mama my fried, My friend
I didn’t want to heart it then but I’m not ashamed to say it now, Every little thing you said and did was right for me,
I had a lot of time to think about, about the way I usedto be, Never had a sense of my responsibility.
Back then I didn’t know why, why you were misunderstood, So now I see through your eyes, all that you did was love, Mama I love you Mama I care,
Mama I love you, Mama my friend, My friend
But now I’m sure I know why, why you were misunderstood, So now I see through your eyes, all I can give you is love, Mama I love you, Mama I care,
Mama I love you, Mama my friend, My friend
Mama I love you, Mama I care, Mama I love you, Mama my friend, You’re my friend
UNDERNEATH THE STARS
Lyrics: Mariah Carey (song)
Music: Mariah Carey, Walter Afanasieff
Vocal: Mariah Carey
One summer night
We ran away for a while
Laughing, we hurried beneath the sky To an obscure place to hide That no one could find
And we drifted to another state of mind
And imagined I was yours and you were mine As we lay upon the grass There in the dark Underneath the stars (Young love)
Underneath the stars
Weak in the knees
Wrapped in the warm gentle breeze So shy, a bundle of butterflies Flush with heat of desire On a natural high
As we drifted to another place in time And the feeling was so heady and sublime As I lost my heart to you There in the dark Underneath the stars (Young love)
Beautiful and bitter sweetly You were fading into me
And I was gently fading into you But the time went sailing by Reluctantly we said good-bye
And left our secret place so far behind And I lay in bed all night and I was Drifting drifting drifting drifting
And I was yours, and you were mine My own baby as we lay As we …
Underneath the stars
Two Become One
Sung by Spice Girls
Candle light and soul forever. A dream of you and me together. Say you believe it, say you believe it. Free your mind of doubt and danger. Be for real. Don’t be a stranger
We can achieve it. We can achieve it.
Come a little bit closer baby. Get it on. Get it on. ‘Cause tonight is the night, when two become one I need some love like I have never needed before Wanna make love to ya, baby. I have a little love
Now, I’m back for more
Wanna makelove to ya, baby. Set your spirits free. Its the only way to be.
Silly games that you were playing Empty words we both were saying
Let’s work it out boy. Let’s work it out boy Any deal that we endeavor
Boys and girls feel good together Take it or leave it. Take it or leave it.
Are you as good as I remember, baby? Get it on. Get it on.
‘Cause tonight is the night when two become one I need some love like I had never needed before Wanna make love to ya, baby. I have a little love
Now, I’m back for more
Wanna make love to ya, baby. Set your spirits free It’s the only way to be
Be a little bit wiser baby. Put it on. Put it on. ‘Cause tonight is the night when two become one I need some love like I have never needed before Wanna make love to ya, baby. I havea little love
Now, I’m back for more Wanna make love to ya, baby. (Repeat) Prepared by Brian Jiang
HEAL THE WORLD
Written, Composed & Sung by Michael Jackson
(Think about the generations and say we want to make it a better place for our children and our children’s children. So that day they know it’s a better world for them. And think they can make it a better place.)
There’s a place in your heart And I know that it is love And this place could be
Much brighter than tomorrow And if you really try you’ll find There’s no need to cry In this place you’ll feel There’s no hurt or sorrow
There are ways to get there
If you care enough for the living Make a little space Make a better place
Heal the world
Make it a better place For you and for me
And the entire human race There are people dying
If you care enough for the living Make a better place For you and for me
If you want to know why There’s a love that cannot lie Love is strong
It only cares for joyful giving If we try
Weshall see in this bliss We cannot feel fear or dread We stop existing and start living Then it feels that always
Love’s enough for us growing So make a better world Make a better world
Heal the world
Make it a better place For you and for me
And the entire human race There are people dying
If you care enough for the living Make a better place For you and for me
And the dream we were conceived in Will reveal a joyful face
And the world we once believed in Will shine again in grace
Then why do we keep strangling life Would this earth, crucify its soul Though it’s plain to see This world is heavenly Be God’s glow
We could fly so high
Let our spirits never die in my heart I feel you are all my brothers Create a world with no fear Together we’ll cry happy tears See the nations
Turn their swords into plowshares We could really get there
If you cared enough for the living Make a little space To make a better place
I Have A Dream
by Martin Luther king: Lincoln Memorial Address
The Lincoln Memorial Address was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King. Jr. on August 28, 1963. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. Dr. King, the famous civil rights leader in the 1960s, was assassinated in 1968.
Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of bad captivity.
But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we’ve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.
Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.
I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up, live up to the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day down in Alabama with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.
This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning My country, ’tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing:
Land where my fathers died,
Land of the pilgrims’ pride, From every mountainside Let freedom ring.
And if America is to be a great nation this must become true.
So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York!
Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California!
But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee! Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill ofMississippi! From every mountainside, let freedom ring!
When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God almighty, we are free at last!”
《生活的艺术》（The Importance of Living）是林语堂用英语写出的旷世之作。林语堂在该书中将旷怀达观， 陶情遣兴的中国人的生活方式，和浪漫高雅的东方情调予以充分的传达，向西方人娓娓道出了一具可供仿效的“生活最高典型”的模式，以致有书评家称：“读完这书后，我真想跑到唐人街，一遇到中国人，便向他行个鞠躬礼。”
THE ENJOYMENT OF LIVING
On Lying in Bed
By Lin Yutang
IT seems I am destined to become a market philosopher, but it can’t be helped. Philosophy generally seems to be the science of making simple things difficult to understand, but I can conceive of a philosophy which is the science of making difficult things simple. In spite of names like “materialism”, “humanism”, “transcendentalism”, “:pluralism”, and all the other longwinded “isms”, I contend that these systems are no deeper than my own philosophy, Life after all is made up of eating and sleeping, of meeting and saying good-by to friends, of reunions and farewell parties, of tears and laughter, of having a haircut once in two weeks, of watering a potted flower and watching one’s neighbor fall off his roof, and the dressing up of our notions concerning these simple phenomena of life in a kind of academic jargon is nothing but a trick to conceal either an extreme paucity or an extreme vagueness of ideas on the part of the university professors. Philosophy therefore has become a science by means of which we begin more and more to understand less and less about ourselves. What the philosophers have succeeded in is this: the more they talk about it, the more confused we become.
It is amazing how few people are conscious of the importance of the art of lying in bed, although actually in my opinion nine-tenths of the world’s most important discoveries, both scientific and philosophical, are come upon when the scientist or philosopher is curled up in bed at two or five o’clock in the morning. Some people lie in the daytime and others lie at night. Now by “lying” I mean at the same time physical and moral lying, for the two happen to coincide. I find that those people who agree with me in believing in lying in bed as one of the greatest pleasures of life are the honest men, while those who do not believe in lying in bed are liars and actually lie a lot in the daytime, morally and physically. Those who lie in the daytime are the moral uplifters, kindergarten teachers and readers ofAesop’s Fables, while those who frankly admit with me that a man ought to consciously cultivate the art of lying in bed are the honest men who prefer to read stories without a moral like Alice in Wonderland.
Now what is the significance of lying in bed, physically and spiritually? Physically, it means a retreat to oneself, shut up from the outside world, when one assumes the physical posture most conducive to rest and peace and contemplation. There is a certain proper and luxurious way of lying in bed. Confucius, that great artist of life, “never lay straight” in bed “like a corpse,” but always curled up on one side. I believe one of the greatest pleasures of life is to curl up one’s legs in bed. The posture of the arms is also very important, in order to reach the greatest degree of aesthetic pleasure and mental power. I believe the best posture is not lying flat on the bed, but being upholstered with big soft pillows at an angle of thirty degrees with either one arm or both arms placed behind the back of one’s head. In this posture any poet can write immortal poetry, any philosopher can revolutionize human thought, and any scientist can make epoch-making discoveries.
THE ENJOYMENT OF NATURE
By Lin Yutang
IT is a curious thing that among the myriad creations on this planet, while the entire plant life is deprived from taking any attitude toward Nature and practically all animals can also have no “attitude” to speak of, there should be a creature called man who is both self-conscious and conscious of his surroundings and who can therefore take an attitude toward it. Man’s intelligence begins to question the universe, to explore its secrets and to find out its meaning. There are both a scientific and a moral attitude toward the universe. The scientific man is interested in finding out the chemical composition of the inside and crust of the earth upon which he lives, the thickness of the atmosphere surrounding it, the quantity and nature of cosmic rays dashing about on the top layers of the atmosphere, the formation of its hills and rocks, and the law governing life in general. This scientific interest has a relationship to the moral attitude, but in itself it is a puredesire to know and to explore. The moral attitude, on the other hand, varies a great deal, being sometimes one of harmony with nature, sometimes one of conquest and subjugation, or one of control and utilization, and sometimes one of supercilious contempt. This last attitude of supercilious contempt toward our own planet is a very curious product of civilization and of certain religions in particular. It springs from the fiction of the “Lost Paradise,” which, strange to say, is pretty generally accepted as being true today, as a result of a primitive religious tradition.
It is amazing that no one ever questions the truth of the story of a lost Paradise. How beautiful, after all, was the Garden of Eden, and how ugly, after all, is the present physical universe? Have flowers ceased to bloom since Eve and Adam sinned? Has God cursed the apple tree and forbidden it to bear fruit because one man sinned, or has He decided that its blossoms should be made of duller or paler colors? Have orioles and nightingales and skylarks ceased to sing? Is there no snow upon the mountain tops and are there no reflections in the lakes? Are there no rosy sunsets today and no rainbows and no haze nestling over villages, and are there no falling cataracts and gurgling streams and shady trees? Who therefore invented the myth that the “Paradise” was “lost” and that today we are living in an ugly universe? We are indeed ungrateful spoiled children of God.
THE ENJOYMENT OF CULTURE
Good Taste in Knowledge
By Lin Yutang
THE aim of education or culture is merely the development of good taste in knowledge and good form in conduct. The cultured man or the ideal educated man is not necessarily one who is well-read or learned, but one who likes and dislikes the right things. To know what to love and what to hate is to have taste in knowledge. I have met such persons, and found that there was no topic that might come up in the course of the conversation concerning which they did not have some facts or figures to produce, but whose points of view were deplorable. Such persons have erudition, but no discernment, or taste. Erudition is a mere matter of cramming of facts or information, while taste or discernment is a matter of cramming of artistic judgment. In speaking of a scholar, the Chinese generally distinguish between a man’s scholarship, conduct, and taste or discernment. This is particularly so with regard to historians; a book of history may be written with the most fastidious scholarship, yet be totally lacking in insight or discernment, and in the judgment or interpretation of persons and events in history, the author may show no originality or depth of understanding. Such a
person, we say, has no taste in knowledge. To be well-informed,
or to accumulate facts and details, is the easiest of all things.
There are many facts in a given historical period that can be easily crammed into our mind, but discernment in the selection of significant facts is a vastly more difficult thing and depends upon one’s point of view.
An educated man, therefore, is one who has the right loves and hatreds. This we call taste, and with taste comes charm. Now to have taste or discernment requires a capacity for thinking things through to the bottom, an independence of judgment, and an unwillingness to be bulldozed by any form of humbug, social, political, literary, artistic, or academic. There is no doubt that we are surrounded in our adult life with a wealth of humbugs: fame humbugs, wealth humbugs, patriotic humbugs, political humbugs, religious humbugs and humbug poets, humbug artists, humbug dictators and humbug psychologists. When a psychoanalyst tells us that the performing of the functions of the bowels during childhood has a definite connection with ambition and aggressiveness and sense of duty in one’s later life, or that constipation leads to stinginess of character, all that a man with taste can do is to feel amused. When a man is wrong, he is wrong, and there is no need for one to be impressed and overawed by a great name or by the number of books that he has read and we haven’t.
Education is one of the key words of our time. A man without an education, many of us believe, is an unfortunate victim of the adverse circumstances, deprived of one of the greatest twentieth-century opportunities.
Lesson 1 A puma at large
1. Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.
2. When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously.
3. However, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar.
4. The hunt for the puma began in a small village where a woman picking blackberries saw ‘a large cat’ only five yards away from her.
a. It immediately ran away when she saw it, and experts confirmed that a puma will not attack a human being unless it is cornered.
5. The search proved difficult, for the puma was often observed at one place in the morning and at another place twenty miles away in the evening.
a. Wherever it went, it left behind it a trail of dead deer and small animals like rabbits.
b. Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes.
c. Several people complained of ‘cat-like noises’ at night and a businessman on a fishing trip saw the puma up a tree.
6. The experts were now fully convinced that the animal was a puma, but where had it come from?
7. As no pumas had been reported missing from any zoo in the country, this one must have been in the possession of a private collector and somehow managed to escape.
8. The hunt went on for several weeks, but the puma was not caught.
9. It is disturbing to think that a dangerous wild animal is still at large in the quiet countryside.
1. Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.
2. When reports came into London Zoo, they were not taken seriously.
3. As the evidence began to accumulate, experts felt obliged to investigate.
4. The hunt for the puma began in a small village.
5. It immediately ran away when she saw it, and experts confirmed that a puma will not attack a human being unless it is cornered.
6. The search proved difficult.
7. Wherever it went, it left behind it a trail of dead deer and small animals.
8. Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes.
9. Several people complained of ‘cat-like noises’ at night and a businessman saw the puma up a tree.
10. The experts were now fully convinced that the animal was a puma, but where had it come from?
11. This one must have been in the possession of a private collector.
12. The hunt went on for several weeks, but the puma was not caught.
13. It is disturbing to think that a dangerous wild animal is still at large.